Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice – William Stallings – 6th Edition

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A practical survey of and network with unmatched support for instructors and students

In this age of universal connectivity, viruses and hackers, electronic eavesdropping, and electronic fraud, is paramount. This text provides a practical survey of both the principles and of and security. First, the basic issues to be addressed by a network security capability are explored through a tutorial and survey of and network security technology. Then, the practice of network security is explored via practical applications that have been implemented and are in use today. An unparalleled support package for instructors and ensures a successful teaching and learning experience.

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  • Preface xiii
    Chapter 0 Guide for Readers and Instructors 1
    0.1 Outline of This Book 2
    0.2 A Roadmap for Readers and Instructors 3
    0.3 Internet and Web Resources 4
    0.4 Standards 5
    Chapter 1 Overview 7
    1.1 Computer Security Concepts 9
    1.2 The OSI Security Architecture 14
    1.3 Security Attacks 15
    1.4 Security Services 17
    1.5 Security Mechanisms 20
    1.6 A Model for Network Security 22
    1.7 Recommended Reading 24
    1.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 25
    Part One Symmetric Ciphers 27
    Chapter 2 Classical Encryption Techniques 27
    2.1 Symmetric Cipher Model 28
    2.2 Substitution Techniques 34
    2.3 Transposition Techniques 49
    2.4 Rotor Machines 50
    2.5 Steganography 52
    2.6 Recommended Reading 54
    2.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 55
    Chapter 3 Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard 61
    3.1 Traditional Block Cipher Structure 63
    3.2 The Data Encryption Standard 72
    3.3 A DES Example 74
    3.4 The Strength of DES 77
    3.5 Block Cipher Design Principles 78
    3.6 Recommended Reading 80
    3.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 81
    Chapter 4 Basic Concepts in Number Theory and Finite Fields 85
    4.1 Divisibility and the Division Algorithm 87
    4.2 The Euclidean Algorithm 88
    4.3 Modular Arithmetic 91
    4.4 Groups, Rings, and Fields 99
    4.5 Finite Fields of the Form GF( p) 102
    4.6 Polynomial Arithmetic 106
    4.7 Finite Fields of the Form GF(2n) 112
    4.8 Recommended Reading 124
    4.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 124
    Appendix 4A The Meaning of mod 127
    Chapter 5 Advanced Encryption Standard 129
    5.1 Finite Field Arithmetic 130
    5.2 AES Structure 132
    5.3 AES Transformation Functions 137
    5.4 AES Key Expansion 148
    5.5 An AES Example 151
    5.6 AES Implementation 155
    5.7 Recommended Reading 159
    5.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 160
    Appendix 5A Polynomials with Coefficients in GF(28) 162
    Appendix 5B Simplified AES 164
    Chapter 6 Block Cipher Operation 174
    6.1 Multiple Encryption and Triple DES 175
    6.2 Electronic Code book 180
    6.3 Cipher Block Chaining Mode 183
    6.4 Cipher Feedback Mode 185
    6.5 Output Feedback Mode 187
    6.6 Counter Mode 189
    6.7 XTS-AES Mode for Block-Oriented Storage Devices 191
    6.8 Recommended Reading 198
    6.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 198
    Chapter 7 Pseudorandom Number Generation and Stream Ciphers 202
    7.1 Principles of Pseudorandom Number Generation 203
    7.2 Pseudorandom Number Generators 210
    7.3 Pseudorandom Number Generation Using a Block Cipher 213
    7.4 Stream Ciphers 219
    7.5 RC4 221
    7.6 True Random Number Generators 223
    7.7 Recommended Reading 227
    7.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 228
    Part Two Asymmetric Ciphers 231
    Chapter 8 More Number Theory 231
    8.1 Prime Numbers 232
    8.2 Fermat’s and Euler’s Theorems 236
    8.3 Testing for Primality 239
    8.4 The Chinese Remainder Theorem 242
    8.5 Discrete Logarithms 244
    8.6 Recommended Reading 249
    8.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 250
    Chapter 9 Public-Key Cryptography and RSA 253
    9.1 Principles of Public-Key Cryptosystems 256
    9.2 The RSA Algorithm 264
    9.3 Recommended Reading 278
    9.4 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 279
    Appendix 9A The Complexity of Algorithms 283
    Chapter 10 Other Public-Key Cryptosystems 286
    10.1 Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange 287
    10.2 Elgamal Cryptographic System 292
    10.3 Elliptic Curve Arithmetic 295
    10.4 Elliptic Curve Cryptography 303
    10.5 Pseudorandom Number Generation Based on an Asymmetric Cipher 306
    10.6 Recommended Reading 309
    10.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 309
    Part Three Cryptographic Data Integrity Algorithms 313
    Chapter 11 Cryptographic Hash Functions 313
    11.1 Applications of Cryptographic Hash Functions 315
    11.2 Two Simple Hash Functions 320
    11.3 Requirements and Security 322
    11.4 Hash Functions Based on Cipher Block Chaining 328
    11.5 Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) 329
    11.6 SHA-3 339
    11.7 Recommended Reading 351
    11.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 351
    Chapter 12 Message Authentication Codes 355
    12.1 Message Authentication Requirements 357
    12.2 Message Authentication Functions 357
    12.3 Requirements for Message Authentication Codes 365
    12.4 Security of MACs 367
    12.5 MACs Based on Hash Functions: HMAC 368
    12.6 MACs Based on Block Ciphers: DAA and CMAC 373
    12.7 Authenticated Encryption: CCM and GCM 376
    12.8 Key Wrapping 382
    12.9 Pseudorandom Number Generation using Hash Functions and MACs 387
    12.10 Recommended Reading 390
    12.11 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 390
    Chapter 13 Digital Signatures 393
    13.1 Digital Signatures 395
    13.2 Elgamal Digital Signature Scheme 398
    13.3 Schnorr Digital Signature Scheme 400
    13.4 NIST Digital Signature Algorithm 401
    13.5 Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm 404
    13.6 RSA-PSS Digital Signature Algorithm 407
    13.7 Recommended Reading 412
    13.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 412
    Part Four Mutual Trust 417
    Chapter 14 Key Management and Distribution 417
    14.1 Symmetric Key Distribution Using Symmetric Encryption 418
    14.2 Symmetric Key Distribution Using Asymmetric Encryption 427
    14.3 Distribution of Public Keys 430
    14.4 X.509 Certificates 435
    14.5 Public-Key Infrastructure 443
    14.6 Recommended Reading 445
    14.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 446
    Chapter 15 User Authentication 450
    15.1 Remote User-Authentication Principles 451
    15.2 Remote User-Authentication Using Symmetric Encryption 454
    15.3 Kerberos 458
    15.4 Remote User Authentication Using Asymmetric Encryption 476
    15.5 Federated Identity Management 478
    15.6 Personal Identity Verification 484
    15.7 Recommended Reading 491
    15.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 491
    Part Five Network And Internet Security 495
    Chapter 16 Network Access Control and Cloud Security 495
    16.1 Network Access Control 496
    16.2 Extensible Authentication Protocol 499
    16.3 IEEE 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control 503
    16.4 Cloud Computing 505
    16.5 Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures 512
    16.6 Data Protection in the Cloud 514
    16.7 Cloud Security as a Service 517
    16.8 Recommended Reading 520
    16.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 521
    Chapter 17 Transport-Level Security 522
    17.1 Web Security Considerations 523
    17.2 Secure Sockets Layer 525
    17.3 Transport Layer Security 539
    17.4 HTTPS 543
    17.5 Secure Shell (SSH) 544
    17.6 Recommended Reading 555
    17.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 556
    Chapter 18 Wireless Network Security 558
    18.1 Wireless Security 559
    18.2 Mobile Device Security 562
    18.3 IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Overview 566
    18.4 IEEE 802.11i Wireless LAN Security 572
    18.5 Recommended Reading 586
    18.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 587
    Chapter 19 Electronic Mail Security 590
    19.1 Pretty Good Privacy 591
    19.2 S/MIME 599
    19.3 DomainKeys Identified Mail 615
    19.4 Recommended Reading 622
    19.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 622
    Appendix 19A Radix-64 Conversion 623
    Chapter 20 IP Security 626
    20.1 IP Security Overview 628
    20.2 IP Security Policy 632
    20.3 Encapsulating Security Payload 638
    20.4 Combining Security Associations 645
    20.5 Internet Key Exchange 649
    20.6 Cryptographic Suites 657
    20.7 Recommended Reading 659
    20.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 659
    Appendices 661
    Appendix A Projects for Teaching Cryptography and Network Security 661
    A.1 Sage Computer Algebra Projects 662
    A.2 Hacking Project 663
    A.3 Block Cipher Projects 664
    A.4 Laboratory Exercises 664
    A.5 Research Projects 664
    A.6 Programming Projects 665
    A.7 Practical Security Assessments 665
    A.8 Firewall Projects 666
    A.9 Case Studies 666
    A.10 Writing Assignments 666
    A.11 Reading/Report Assignments 667
    A.12 Discussion Topics 667
    Appendix B Sage Examples 668
    B.1 Linear Algebra and Matrix Functionality 669
    B.2 Chapter 2: Classical Encryption 670
    B.3 Chapter 3: Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard 673
    B.4 Chapter 4: Basic Concepts in Number Theory and Finite Fields 677
    B.5 Chapter 5: Advanced Encryption Standard 684
    viii Contents
    B.6 Chapter 6: Pseudorandom Number Generation and Stream Ciphers 689
    B.7 Chapter 8: Number Theory 691
    B.8 Chapter 9: Public-Key Cryptography and RSA 696
    B.9 Chapter 10: Other Public-Key Cryptosystems 699
    B.10 Chapter 11: Cryptographic Hash Functions 704
    B.11 Chapter 13: Digital Signatures 706
    References 710
    Credits 720
    Index 723
    Online Chapters and Appendices1
    Part Six System Security
    Chapter 21 Malicious Software
    21.1 Types of Malicious Software
    21.2 Propagation — Infected Content - Viruses
    21.3 Propagation — Vulnerability Exploit - Worms
    21.4 Propagation — Social Engineering — SPAM, Trojans
    21.5 Payload — System Corruption
    21.6 Payload — Attack Agent — Zombie, Bots
    21.7 Payload — Information Theft — Keyloggers, Phishing, Spyware
    21.8 Payload — Stealthing — Backdoors, Rootkits
    21.9 Countermeasures
    21.10 Distributed Denial of Service Attacks
    21.11 Recommended Reading
    21.12 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
    Chapter 22 Intruders
    22.1 Intruders
    22.2 Intrusion Detection
    22.3 Password Management
    22.4 Recommended Reading
    22.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
    Appendix 22A The Base-Rate Fallacy
    Chapter 23 Firewalls
    23.1 The Need for Firewalls
    23.2 Firewall Characteristics
    23.3 Types of Firewalls
    23.4 Firewall Basing
    23.5 Firewall Location and Configurations
    23.6 Recommended Reading
    23.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
    Part seven Legal And Ethical Issues
    Chapter 24 Legal and Ethical Issues
    24.1 Cybercrime and Computer Crime
    24.2 Intellectual Property
    24.3 Privacy
    24.4 Ethical Issues
    24.5 Recommended Reading
    24.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
    Appendix C Sage Exercises
    Appendix D Standards and Standards-Setting Organizations
    Appendix E Basic Concepts from Linear Algebra
    Appendix F Measures of Security and Secrecy
    Appendix G Simplified DES
    Appendix H Evaluation Criteria for AES
    Appendix I More on Simplified AES
    Appendix J Knapsack Public-Key Algorithm
    Appendix K Proof of the Digital Signature Algorithm
    Appendix L TCP/IP and OSI
    Appendix M Java Cryptographic APIs
    Appendix N MD5 and Whirlpool Hash Functions
    Appendix O Data Compression Using ZIP
    Appendix P More on PGP
    Appendix Q The International Reference Alphabet
    Appendix R Proof of the RSA Algorithm
    Appendix S Data Encryption Standard (DES)
    Appendix T Kerberos Encryption Techniques
    Appendix U Mathematical Basis of the Birthday Attack
    Appendix V Evaluation Criteria for SHA-3
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