## Description

A practical survey of and with unmatched support for instructors and

In this age of universal connectivity, viruses and hackers, eavesdropping, and fraud, security is paramount. This text provides a practical survey of both the principles and of cryptography and . First, the basic issues to be addressed by a capability are explored through a tutorial and survey of cryptography and technology. Then, the practice of is explored via practical that have been implemented and are in use today. An unparalleled support package for instructors and students ensures a successful teaching and experience.

Preface xiii
Chapter 0 Guide for Readers and Instructors 1
0.1 Outline of This Book 2
0.3 Internet and Web Resources 4
0.4 Standards 5
Chapter 1 Overview 7
1.1 Computer Security Concepts 9
1.2 The OSI Security Architecture 14
1.3 Security Attacks 15
1.4 Security Services 17
1.5 Security Mechanisms 20
1.6 A Model for Network Security 22
1.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 25
Part One Symmetric Ciphers 27
Chapter 2 Classical Encryption Techniques 27
2.1 Symmetric Cipher Model 28
2.2 Substitution Techniques 34
2.3 Transposition Techniques 49
2.4 Rotor Machines 50
2.5 Steganography 52
2.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 55
Chapter 3 Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard 61
3.1 Traditional Block Cipher Structure 63
3.2 The Data Encryption Standard 72
3.3 A DES Example 74
3.4 The Strength of DES 77
3.5 Block Cipher Design Principles 78
3.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 81
Chapter 4 Basic Concepts in Number Theory and Finite Fields 85
4.1 Divisibility and the Division Algorithm 87
4.2 The Euclidean Algorithm 88
4.3 Modular Arithmetic 91
4.4 Groups, Rings, and Fields 99
4.5 Finite Fields of the Form GF( p) 102
4.6 Polynomial Arithmetic 106
4.7 Finite Fields of the Form GF(2n) 112
4.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 124
Appendix 4A The Meaning of mod 127
Chapter 5 Advanced Encryption Standard 129
5.1 Finite Field Arithmetic 130
5.2 AES Structure 132
5.3 AES Transformation Functions 137
5.4 AES Key Expansion 148
5.5 An AES Example 151
5.6 AES Implementation 155
5.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 160
Appendix 5A Polynomials with Coefficients in GF(28) 162
Appendix 5B Simplified AES 164
Chapter 6 Block Cipher Operation 174
6.1 Multiple Encryption and Triple DES 175
6.2 Electronic Code book 180
6.3 Cipher Block Chaining Mode 183
6.4 Cipher Feedback Mode 185
6.5 Output Feedback Mode 187
6.6 Counter Mode 189
6.7 XTS-AES Mode for Block-Oriented Storage Devices 191
6.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 198
Chapter 7 Pseudorandom Number Generation and Stream Ciphers 202
7.1 Principles of Pseudorandom Number Generation 203
7.2 Pseudorandom Number Generators 210
7.3 Pseudorandom Number Generation Using a Block Cipher 213
7.4 Stream Ciphers 219
7.5 RC4 221
7.6 True Random Number Generators 223
7.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 228
Part Two Asymmetric Ciphers 231
Chapter 8 More Number Theory 231
8.1 Prime Numbers 232
8.2 Fermats and Eulers Theorems 236
8.3 Testing for Primality 239
8.4 The Chinese Remainder Theorem 242
8.5 Discrete Logarithms 244
8.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 250
Chapter 9 Public-Key Cryptography and RSA 253
9.1 Principles of Public-Key Cryptosystems 256
9.2 The RSA Algorithm 264
9.4 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 279
Appendix 9A The Complexity of Algorithms 283
Chapter 10 Other Public-Key Cryptosystems 286
10.1 Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange 287
10.2 Elgamal Cryptographic System 292
10.3 Elliptic Curve Arithmetic 295
10.4 Elliptic Curve Cryptography 303
10.5 Pseudorandom Number Generation Based on an Asymmetric Cipher 306
10.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 309
Part Three Cryptographic Data Integrity Algorithms 313
Chapter 11 Cryptographic Hash Functions 313
11.1 Applications of Cryptographic Hash Functions 315
11.2 Two Simple Hash Functions 320
11.3 Requirements and Security 322
11.4 Hash Functions Based on Cipher Block Chaining 328
11.5 Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) 329
11.6 SHA-3 339
11.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 351
Chapter 12 Message Authentication Codes 355
12.1 Message Authentication Requirements 357
12.2 Message Authentication Functions 357
12.3 Requirements for Message Authentication Codes 365
12.4 Security of MACs 367
12.5 MACs Based on Hash Functions: HMAC 368
12.6 MACs Based on Block Ciphers: DAA and CMAC 373
12.7 Authenticated Encryption: CCM and GCM 376
12.8 Key Wrapping 382
12.9 Pseudorandom Number Generation using Hash Functions and MACs 387
12.11 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 390
Chapter 13 Digital Signatures 393
13.1 Digital Signatures 395
13.2 Elgamal Digital Signature Scheme 398
13.3 Schnorr Digital Signature Scheme 400
13.4 NIST Digital Signature Algorithm 401
13.5 Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm 404
13.6 RSA-PSS Digital Signature Algorithm 407
13.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 412
Part Four Mutual Trust 417
Chapter 14 Key Management and Distribution 417
14.1 Symmetric Key Distribution Using Symmetric Encryption 418
14.2 Symmetric Key Distribution Using Asymmetric Encryption 427
14.3 Distribution of Public Keys 430
14.4 X.509 Certificates 435
14.5 Public-Key Infrastructure 443
14.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 446
Chapter 15 User Authentication 450
15.1 Remote User-Authentication Principles 451
15.2 Remote User-Authentication Using Symmetric Encryption 454
15.3 Kerberos 458
15.4 Remote User Authentication Using Asymmetric Encryption 476
15.5 Federated Identity Management 478
15.6 Personal Identity Verification 484
15.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 491
Part Five Network And Internet Security 495
Chapter 16 Network Access Control and Cloud Security 495
16.1 Network Access Control 496
16.2 Extensible Authentication Protocol 499
16.3 IEEE 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control 503
16.4 Cloud Computing 505
16.5 Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures 512
16.6 Data Protection in the Cloud 514
16.7 Cloud Security as a Service 517
16.9 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 521
Chapter 17 Transport-Level Security 522
17.1 Web Security Considerations 523
17.2 Secure Sockets Layer 525
17.3 Transport Layer Security 539
17.4 HTTPS 543
17.5 Secure Shell (SSH) 544
17.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 556
Chapter 18 Wireless Network Security 558
18.1 Wireless Security 559
18.2 Mobile Device Security 562
18.3 IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Overview 566
18.4 IEEE 802.11i Wireless LAN Security 572
18.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 587
Chapter 19 Electronic Mail Security 590
19.1 Pretty Good Privacy 591
19.2 S/MIME 599
19.3 DomainKeys Identified Mail 615
19.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 622
Chapter 20 IP Security 626
20.1 IP Security Overview 628
20.2 IP Security Policy 632
20.4 Combining Security Associations 645
20.5 Internet Key Exchange 649
20.6 Cryptographic Suites 657
20.8 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 659
Appendices 661
Appendix A Projects for Teaching Cryptography and Network Security 661
A.1 Sage Computer Algebra Projects 662
A.2 Hacking Project 663
A.3 Block Cipher Projects 664
A.4 Laboratory Exercises 664
A.5 Research Projects 664
A.6 Programming Projects 665
A.7 Practical Security Assessments 665
A.8 Firewall Projects 666
A.9 Case Studies 666
A.10 Writing Assignments 666
A.12 Discussion Topics 667
Appendix B Sage Examples 668
B.1 Linear Algebra and Matrix Functionality 669
B.2 Chapter 2: Classical Encryption 670
B.3 Chapter 3: Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard 673
B.4 Chapter 4: Basic Concepts in Number Theory and Finite Fields 677
B.5 Chapter 5: Advanced Encryption Standard 684
viii Contents
B.6 Chapter 6: Pseudorandom Number Generation and Stream Ciphers 689
B.7 Chapter 8: Number Theory 691
B.8 Chapter 9: Public-Key Cryptography and RSA 696
B.9 Chapter 10: Other Public-Key Cryptosystems 699
B.10 Chapter 11: Cryptographic Hash Functions 704
B.11 Chapter 13: Digital Signatures 706
References 710
Credits 720
Index 723
Online Chapters and Appendices1
Part Six System Security
Chapter 21 Malicious Software
21.1 Types of Malicious Software
21.2 Propagation  Infected Content - Viruses
21.3 Propagation  Vulnerability Exploit - Worms
21.4 Propagation  Social Engineering  SPAM, Trojans
21.6 Payload  Attack Agent  Zombie, Bots
21.7 Payload  Information Theft  Keyloggers, Phishing, Spyware
21.8 Payload  Stealthing  Backdoors, Rootkits
21.9 Countermeasures
21.10 Distributed Denial of Service Attacks
21.12 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Chapter 22 Intruders
22.1 Intruders
22.2 Intrusion Detection
22.5 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Appendix 22A The Base-Rate Fallacy
Chapter 23 Firewalls
23.1 The Need for Firewalls
23.2 Firewall Characteristics
23.3 Types of Firewalls
23.4 Firewall Basing
23.5 Firewall Location and Configurations
23.7 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Part seven Legal And Ethical Issues
Chapter 24 Legal and Ethical Issues
24.1 Cybercrime and Computer Crime
24.2 Intellectual Property
24.3 Privacy
24.4 Ethical Issues
24.6 Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Appendix C Sage Exercises
Appendix D Standards and Standards-Setting Organizations
Appendix E Basic Concepts from Linear Algebra
Appendix F Measures of Security and Secrecy
Appendix G Simplified DES
Appendix H Evaluation Criteria for AES
Appendix I More on Simplified AES
Appendix J Knapsack Public-Key Algorithm
Appendix K Proof of the Digital Signature Algorithm
Appendix L TCP/IP and OSI
Appendix M Java Cryptographic APIs
Appendix N MD5 and Whirlpool Hash Functions
Appendix O Data Compression Using ZIP
Appendix P More on PGP
Appendix Q The International Reference Alphabet
Appendix R Proof of the RSA Algorithm
Appendix S Data Encryption Standard (DES)
Appendix T Kerberos Encryption Techniques
Appendix U Mathematical Basis of the Birthday Attack
Appendix V Evaluation Criteria for SHA-3
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