Electric Circuits – James W. Nilsson – 9th Edition

Description

Designed for use in a one or two-semester Introductory or Course taught in Electrical or Engineering Departments.

Circuits 9/e is the most widely used introductory circuits of the past 25 years. As this has evolved over the years to meet the changing learning styles of students, importantly, the underlying teaching approaches and philosophies remain unchanged. The goals are:

– To build an understanding of concepts and ideas explicitly in terms of previous learning

– To emphasize the relationship between conceptual understanding and problem solving approaches

– To provide students with a strong foundation of engineering practices.

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  • List of Examples xiii

    Preface xvii

    Chapter 1 Circuit Variables 2

    Practical Perspective: Balancing Power 3

    1.1 Electrical Engineering: An Overview 4

    1.2 The International System of Units 8

    1.3 Circuit Analysis: An Overview 10

    1.4 Voltage and Current 11

    1.5 The Ideal Basic Circuit Element 12

    1.6 Power and Energy 14

    Practical Perspective: Balancing Power 17

    Summary 18

    Problems 19

    Chapter 2 Circuit Elements 24

    Practical Perspective: Electrical Safety 25

    2.1 Voltage and Current Sources 26

    2.2 Electrical Resistance (Ohm’s Law) 30

    2.3 Construction of a Circuit Model 34

    2.4 Kirchhoff’s Laws 37

    2.5 Analysis of a Circuit Containing Dependent Sources 42

    Practical Perspective: Electrical Safety 46

    Summary 47

    Problems 48

    Chapter 3 Simple Resistive Circuits 56

    Practical Perspective: A Rear Window Defroster 57

    3.1 Resistors in Series 58

    3.2 Resistors in Parallel 59

    3.3 The Voltage-Divider and Current-DividerCircuits 61

    3.4 Voltage Division and Current Division 64

    3.5 Measuring Voltage and Current 66

    3.6 Measuring Resistance—The Wheatstone Bridge 69

    3.7 Delta-to-Wye (Pi-to-Tee) Equivalent Circuits 71

    Practical Perspective: A Rear Window Defroster 73

    Summary 76

    Problems 77



    Chapter 4 Techniques of Circuit Analysis 88

    Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors 89

    4.1 Terminology 90

    4.2 Introduction to the Node-Voltage Method 93

    4.3 The Node-Voltage Method and Dependent Sources 95

    4.4 The Node-Voltage Method: Some Special Cases 96

    4.5 Introduction to the Mesh-Current Method 99

    4.6 The Mesh-Current Method and Dependent Sources 102

    4.7 The Mesh-Current Method: Some Special Cases 103

    4.8 The Node-Voltage Method Versus the Mesh-Current Method 106

    4.9 Source Transformations 109

    4.10 Thévenin and Norton Equivalents 113

    4.11 More on Deriving a Thévenin Equivalent 117

    4.12 Maximum Power Transfer 120

    4.13 Superposition 122

    Practical Perspective: Circuits with Realistic Resistors 125

    Summary 129

    Problems 130

    Chapter 5 The Operational Amplifier 144

    Practical Perspective: Strain Gages 145

    5.1 Operational Amplifier Terminals 146

    5.2 Terminal Voltages and Currents 146

    5.3 The Inverting-Amplifier Circuit 150

    5.4 The Summing-Amplifier Circuit 152

    5.5 The Noninverting-Amplifier Circuit 153

    5.6 The Difference-Amplifier Circuit 155

    5.7 A More Realistic Model for the Operational Amplifier 159

    Practical Perspective: Strain Gages 162

    Summary 164

    Problems 165



    Chapter 6 Inductance, Capacitance, and Mutual Inductance 174

    Practical Perspective: Proximity Switches 175

    6.1 The Inductor 176

    6.2 The Capacitor 182

    6.3 Series-Parallel Combinations of Inductance and Capacitance 187

    6.4 Mutual Inductance 189

    6.5 A Closer Look at Mutual Inductance 193

    Practical Perspective: Proximity Switches 200

    Summary 203

    Problems 204

    Chapter 7 Response of First-Order RL and RC Circuits 212

    Practical Perspective: A Flashing Light Circuit 213

    7.1 The Natural Response of an RL Circuit 214

    7.2 The Natural Response of an RC Circuit 220

    7.3 The Step Response of RL and RC Circuits 224

    7.4 A General Solution for Step and Natural Responses 231

    7.5 Sequential Switching 236

    7.6 Unbounded Response 240

    7.7 The Integrating Amplifier 241

    Practical Perspective: A Flashing Light Circuit 245

    Summary 246

    Problems 247

    Chapter 8 Natural and Step Responses of RLC Circuits 264

    Practical Perspective: An Ignition Circuit 265

    8.1 Introduction to the Natural Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 266

    8.2 The Forms of the Natural Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 270

    8.3 The Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 280

    8.4 The Natural and Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit 285

    8.5 A Circuit with Two Integrating Amplifiers 289

    Practical Perspective: An Ignition Circuit 294

    Summary 297

    Problems 298

    Chapter 9 Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis 306

    Practical Perspective: A Household Distribution Circuit 307

    9.1 The Sinusoidal Source 308

    9.2 The Sinusoidal Response 311

    9.3 The Phasor 312

    9.4 The Passive Circuit Elements in the Frequency Domain 317

    9.5 Kirchhoff’s Laws in the Frequency Domain 321

    9.6 Series, Parallel, and Delta-to-Wye Simplifications 322

    9.7 Source Transformations and Thévenin-Norton Equivalent Circuits 329

    9.8 The Node-Voltage Method 332

    9.9 The Mesh-Current Method 333

    9.10 The Transformer 334

    9.11 The Ideal Transformer 338

    9.12 Phasor Diagrams 344

    Practical Perspective: A Household Distribution Circuit 346

    Summary 347

    Problems 348

    Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Steady-State Power Calculations 360

    Practical Perspective: Heating Appliances 361

    10.1 Instantaneous Power 362

    10.2 Average and Reactive Power 363

    10.3 The rms Value and Power Calculations 368

    10.4 Complex Power 370

    10.5 Power Calculations 371

    10.6 Maximum Power Transfer 378

    Practical Perspective: Heating Appliances 384

    Summary 386

    Problems 387

    Chapter 11 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 398

    Practical Perspective: Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power 399

    11.1 Balanced Three-Phase Voltages 400

    11.2 Three-Phase Voltage Sources 401

    11.3 Analysis of the Wye-Wye Circuit 402

    11.4 Analysis of the Wye-Delta Circuit 407

    11.5 Power Calculations in Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 410

    11.6 Measuring Average Power in Three-Phase Circuits 415

    Practical Perspective: Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power 418

    Summary 419

    Problems 420



    Chapter 12 Introduction to the Laplace Transform 428

    Practical Perspective: Transient Effects 429

    12.1 Definition of the Laplace Transform 430

    12.2 The Step Function 431

    12.3 The Impulse Function 433

    12.4 Functional Transforms 436

    12.5 Operational Transforms 437

    12.6 Applying the Laplace Transform 442

    12.7 Inverse Transforms 444

    12.8 Poles and Zeros of F(s) 454

    12.9 Initial- and Final-Value Theorems 455

    Practical Perspective: Transient Effects 458

    Summary 459

    Problems 460



    Chapter 13 The Laplace Transform in Circuit Analysis 466

    Practical Perspective: Surge Suppressors 467

    13.1 Circuit Elements in the s Domain 468

    13.2 Circuit Analysis in the s Domain 470

    13.3 Applications 472

    13.4 The Transfer Function 484

    13.5 The Transfer Function in Partial Fraction Expansions 486

    13.6 The Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral 489

    13.7 The Transfer Function and the Steady-State Sinusoidal Response 495

    13.8 The Impulse Function in Circuit Analysis 498

    Practical Perspective: Surge Suppressors 505

    Summary 506

    Problems 507

    Chapter 14 Introduction to Frequency Selective Circuits 522

    Practical Perspective: Pushbutton Telephone Circuits 523

    14.1 Some Preliminaries 524

    14.2 Low-Pass Filters 526

    14.3 High-Pass Filters 532

    14.4 Bandpass Filters 536

    14.5 Bandreject Filters 545

    Practical Perspective: Pushbutton Telephone Circuits 550

    Summary 550

    Problems 551



    Chapter 15 Active Filter Circuits 558

    Practical Perspective: Bass Volume Control 559

    15.1 First-Order Low-Pass and High-Pass Filters 560

    15.2 Scaling 564

    15.3 Op Amp Bandpass and Bandreject Filters 566

    15.4 Higher Order Op Amp Filters 573

    15.5 Narrowband Bandpass and Bandreject Filters 586

    Practical Perspective: Bass Volume Control 591

    Summary 594

    Problems 595

    Chapter 16 Fourier Series 604

    Practical Perspective: Active High-Q Filters 605

    16.1 Fourier Series Analysis: An Overview 607

    16.2 The Fourier Coefficients 608

    16.3 The Effect of Symmetry on the Fourier Coefficients 611

    16.4 An Alternative Trigonometric Form of the Fourier Series 617

    16.5 An Application 619

    16.6 Average-Power Calculations with Periodic Functions 623

    16.7 The rms Value of a Periodic Function 626

    16.8 The Exponential Form of the Fourier Series 627

    16.9 Amplitude and Phase Spectra 630

    Practical Perspective: Active High-Q Filters 632

    Summary 634

    Problems 635

    Chapter 17 The Fourier Transform 644

    Practical Perspective: Filtering Digital Signals 645

    17.1 The Derivation of the Fourier Transform 646

    17.2 The Convergence of the Fourier Integral 648

    17.3 Using Laplace Transforms to Find Fourier Transforms 650

    17.4 Fourier Transforms in the Limit 653

    17.5 Some Mathematical Properties 655

    17.6 Operational Transforms 657

    17.7 Circuit Applications 661

    17.8 Parseval’s Theorem 664

    Practical Perspective: Filtering Digital Signals 671

    Summary 672

    Problems 672



    Chapter 18 Two-Port Circuits 678

    Practical Perspective: Characterizing an Unknown Circuit 679

    18.1 The Terminal Equations 680

    18.2 The Two-Port Parameters 681

    18.3 Analysis of the Terminated Two-Port Circuit 689

    18.4 Interconnected Two-Port Circuits 694

    Practical Perspective: Characterizing an Unknown Circuit 697

    Summary 698

    Problems 698

    Appendix A The Solution of Linear Simultaneous Equations 705

    A.1 Preliminary Steps 705

    A.2 Cramer’s Method 706

    A.3 The Characteristic Determinant 706

    A.4 The Numerator Determinant 706

    A.5 The Evaluation of a Determinant 707

    A.6 Matrices 709

    A.7 Matrix Algebra 710

    A.8 Identity, Adjoint, and Inverse Matrices 714

    A.9 Partitioned Matrices 717

    A.10 Applications 720

    Appendix B Complex Numbers 725

    B.1 Notation 725

    B.2 The Graphical Representation of a Complex Number 726

    B.3 Arithmetic Operations 727

    B.4 Useful Identities 728

    B.5 The Integer Power of a Complex Number 729

    B.6 The Roots of a Complex Number 729

    Appendix C More on Magnetically Coupled Coils and Ideal Transformers 731

    C.1 Equivalent Circuits for Magnetically Coupled Coils 731

    C.2 The Need for Ideal Transformers in the Equivalent Circuits 735

    Appendix D The Decibel 739

    Appendix E Bode Diagrams 741

    E.1 Real, First-Order Poles and Zeros 741

    E.2 Straight-Line Amplitude Plots 742

    E.3 More Accurate Amplitude Plots 746

    E.4 Straight-Line Phase Angle Plots 747

    E.5 Bode Diagrams: Complex Poles and Zeros 749

    E.6 Amplitude Plots 751

    E.7 Correcting Straight-Line Amplitude Plots 752

    E.8 Phase Angle Plots 755

    Appendix F An Abbreviated Table of Trigonometric Identities 759

    Appendix G An Abbreviated Table of Integrals 761

    Appendix H Common Standard Component Values 763

    Answers to Selected Problems 765

    Index 781
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