Electrical Engineering: Concepts & Applications – S.A. Zekavat – 1st Edition

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Electrical Engineering: Concepts and Applications is the result of a multi-disciplinary effort at Michigan Technological to create a new curriculum that is attractive, motivational, and relevant to by creating many application-based problems; and provide the optimal level of both range and depth of coverage of EE topics in a curriculum package.

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  • Preface xv
    Acknowledgements xix
    Chapter 1 Why Electrical Engineering? 1
    1.1 Introduction 1
    1.2 Electrical Engineering and a Successful Career 2
    1.3 What Do You Need to Know about EE? 2
    1.4 Real Career Success Stories 3
    1.5 Typical Situations Encountered on the Job 4
    1.5.1 On-the-Job Situation 1: Active Structural Control 4
    1.5.2 On-the-Job Situation 2: Chemical Process Control 6
    1.5.3 On-the-Job Situation 3: Performance of an Off-Road Vehicle Prototype 8
    Further Reading 12

    Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 13
    2.1 Introduction 13
    2.2 Charge and Current 15
    2.3 Voltage 17
    2.4 Respective Direction of Voltage and Current 18
    2.5 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 18
    2.6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 22
    2.7 Ohm’s Law and Resistors 27
    2.7.1 Resistivity of a Resistor 29
    2.7.2 Nonlinear Resistors 32
    2.7.3 Time-Varying Resistors 32
    2.8 Power and Energy 32
    2.8.1 Resistor-Consumed Power 36
    2.9 Independent and Dependent Sources 38
    2.10 Analysis of Circuits Using PSpice 42
    Bias Point Analysis 45
    Time Domain (Transient) Analysis 46
    Copy the Simulation Plot to the Clipboard to Submit Electronically 47
    2.11 What Did You Learn? 53
    Problems 54

    Chapter 3 Resistive Circuits 61
    3.1 Introduction 61
    3.2 Resistors in Parallel and Series and Equivalent Resistance 62
    3.3 Voltage and Current Division/Divider Rules 71
    3.3.1 Voltage Division 71
    3.3.2 Current Division 74
    3.4 Nodal and Mesh Analysis 81
    3.4.1 Nodal Analysis 81
    3.4.2 Mesh Analysis 88
    3.5 Special Conditions: Super Node 92
    3.6 Thévenin/Norton Equivalent Circuits 99
    3.6.1 Source Transformation 108
    3.7 Superposition Principle 112
    3.8 Maximum Power Transfer 118
    3.9 Analysis of Circuits Using PSpice 122
    3.10 What Did You Learn? 125
    Problems 126

    Chapter 4 Capacitance and Inductance 135
    4.1 Introduction 135
    4.2 Capacitors 136
    4.2.1 The Relationship Between Charge, Voltage, and Current 138
    4.2.2 Power 140
    4.2.3 Energy 140
    4.3 Capacitors in Series and Parallel 141
    4.3.1 Series Capacitors 141
    4.3.2 Parallel Capacitance 142
    4.4 Inductors 147
    4.4.1 The Relationship Between Voltage and Current 147
    4.4.2 Power and Stored Energy 148
    4.5 Inductors in Series and Parallel 149
    4.5.1 Inductors in Series 150
    4.5.2 Inductors in Parallel 150
    4.6 Applications of Capacitors and Inductors 152
    4.6.1 Fuel Sensors 152
    4.6.2 Vibration Sensors 153
    4.7 Analysis of Capacitive and Inductive Circuits Using PSpice 156
    4.8 What Did You Learn? 158
    Problems 159

    Chapter 5 Transient Analysis 164
    5.1 Introduction 164
    5.2 First-Order Circuits 165
    5.2.1 RC Circuits 165
    5.2.2 RL Circuits 179
    5.3 DC Steady State 186
    5.4 DC Steady State for Capacitive–Inductive Circuits 188
    5.5 Second-Order Circuits 189
    5.5.1 Series RLC Circuits with a DC Voltage Source 189
    5.5.2 Parallel RLC Circuits with a DC Voltage Source 196
    5.6 Transient Analysis with Sinusoid Forcing Functions 198
    5.7 Using PSpice to Investigate the Transient Behavior of RL and RC Circuits 201
    5.8 What Did You Learn? 207
    Problems 208

    Chapter 6 Steady-State AC Analysis 215
    6.1 Introduction: Sinusoidal Voltages and Currents 215
    6.1.1 Root-Mean-Square (rms) Values (Effective Values) 220
    6.1.2 Instantaneous and Average Power 221
    6.2 Phasors 222
    6.2.1 Phasors in Additive or (Subtractive) Sinusoids 224
    6.3 Complex Impedances 225
    6.3.1 The Impedance of a Resistor 225
    6.3.2 The Impedance of an Inductor 225
    6.3.3 The Impedance of a Capacitor 226
    6.3.4 Series Connection of Impedances 228
    6.3.5 Parallel Connection of Impedances 229
    6.4 Steady-State Circuit Analysis Using Phasors 231
    6.5 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits with Phasors 239
    6.5.1 Thévenin Equivalent Circuits with Phasors 239
    6.5.2 Norton Equivalent Circuits with Phasors 240
    6.6 AC Steady-State Power 243
    6.6.1 Average Power 245
    6.6.2 Power Factor 246
    6.6.3 Reactive Power 246
    6.6.4 Complex Power 247
    6.6.5 Apparent Power 249
    6.6.6 Maximum Average Power Transfer 252
    6.6.7 Power Factor Correction 254
    6.7 Steady-State Circuit Analysis Using PSpice 259
    6.8 What Did You Learn? 265
    Problems 267

    Chapter 7 Frequency Analysis 274
    7.1 Introduction 274
    7.2 First-Order Filters 276
    7.2.1 Transfer Functions 276
    7.3 Low-Pass Filters 276
    7.3.1 Magnitude and Phase Plots 280
    7.3.2 Decibels 280
    7.3.3 Bode Plot 282
    7.4 High-Pass Filters 285
    7.4.1 Cascaded Networks 287
    7.5 Second-Order Filters 289
    7.5.1 Band-Pass Filters 289
    7.5.2 Band-Stop Filters 291
    7.6 MATLAB Applications 293
    7.7 Frequency Response Analysis Using PSpice 300
    7.8 What Did You Learn? 309
    Problems 310

    Chapter 8 Electronic Circuits 316
    8.1 Introduction 316
    8.2 P-Type and N-Type Semiconductors 317
    8.3 Diodes 319
    8.3.1 Diode Applications 323
    8.3.2 Different Types of Diodes 329
    8.3.3 AC-to-DC Converter 335
    8.4 Transistors 338
    8.4.1 Bipolar Junction Transistor 338
    8.4.2 Transistor as an Amplifier 339
    8.4.3 Transistors as Switches 356
    8.4.4 Field-Effect Transistors 357
    8.4.5 Design of NOT Gates Using NMOS Only for High-Density Integration 367
    8.4.6 Design of a Logic Gate Using CMOS 369
    8.5 Operational Amplifiers 371
    8.6 Using PSpice to Study Diodes and Transistors 377
    8.7 What Did You Learn? 385
    Further Reading 385
    Problems 386

    Chapter 9 Power Systems and Transmission Lines 395
    9.1 Introduction 395
    9.2 Three-Phase Systems 396
    9.2.1 Introduction 396
    9.2.2 Phase Sequence 398
    9.2.3 Y-Connected Generators 398
    9.2.4 Y-Connected Loads 398
    9.2.5 Δ-Connected Loads 401
    9.2.6 Δ-Star and Star-Δ Transformations 404
    9.2.7 Power in Three-Phase Systems 406
    9.2.8 Comparison of Star and Δ Load Connections 411
    9.2.9 Advantages of Three-Phase Systems 411
    9.3 Transmission Lines 412
    9.3.1 Introduction 412
    9.3.2 Resistance (R) 414
    9.3.3 Different Types of Conductors 415
    9.3.4 Inductance (L) 416
    9.3.5 Capacitance 421
    9.3.6 Transmission Line Equivalent Circuits 424
    9.4 Using PSpice to Study Three-Phase Systems 432
    9.5 What Did You Learn? 435
    Further Reading 435
    Problems 436

    Chapter 10 Fundamentals of Logic Circuits 440
    10.1 Introduction 440
    10.2 Number Systems 442
    10.2.1 Binary Numbers 442
    10.2.2 Hexadecimal Numbers 449
    10.2.3 Octal Numbers 450
    10.3 Boolean Algebra 451
    10.3.1 Boolean Inversion 451
    10.3.2 Boolean AND Operation 451
    10.3.3 Boolean OR Operation 452
    10.3.4 Boolean NAND Operation 452
    10.3.5 Boolean NOR Operation 452
    10.3.6 Boolean XOR Operation 452
    10.3.7 Summary of Boolean Operations 452
    10.3.8 Rules Used in Boolean Algebra 452
    10.3.9 De Morgan’s Theorems 453
    10.3.10 Commutativity Rule 454
    10.3.11 Associativity Rule 454
    10.3.12 Distributivity Rule 454
    10.4 Basic Logic Gates 459
    10.4.1 The NOT Gate 459
    10.4.2 The AND Gate 460
    10.4.3 The OR Gate 460
    10.4.4 The NAND Gate 460
    10.4.5 The NOR Gate 461
    10.4.6 The XOR Gate 463
    10.4.7 The XNOR Gate 463
    10.5 Sequential Logic Circuits 466
    10.5.1 Flip-Flops 466
    10.5.2 Counter 470
    10.6 Using PSpice to Analyze Digital Logic Circuits 474
    10.7 What Did You Learn? 481
    Reference 482
    Problems 483

    Chapter 11 Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems 488
    11.1 Introduction 488
    11.2 Sensors 489
    11.2.1 Pressure Sensors 490
    11.2.2 Temperature Sensors 491
    11.2.3 Accelerometers 497
    11.2.4 Strain-Gauges/Load Cells 498
    11.2.5 Acoustic Sensors 500
    11.2.6 Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT) 503
    11.3 Signal Conditioning 505
    11.3.1 Amplifiers 505
    11.3.2 Active Filters 505
    11.4 Data Acquisition 511
    11.4.1 Analog Multiplexer 511
    11.4.2 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 511
    11.5 Grounding Issues 514
    11.5.1 Ground Loops 514
    11.6 Using PSpice to Demonstrate a Computer-Based Instrument 516
    11.7 What Did You Learn? 519
    Further Reading 519
    Problems 519

    Chapter 12 Principles of Electromechanics 524
    12.1 Introduction 524
    12.2 Magnetic Fields 525
    12.2.1 Magnetic Flux and Flux Intensity 526
    12.2.2 Magnetic Field Intensity 527
    12.2.3 The Right-Hand Rule 527
    12.2.4 Forces on Charges by Magnetic Fields 528
    12.2.5 Forces on Current-Carrying Wires 528
    12.2.6 Flux Linkages 530
    12.2.7 Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law 530
    12.3 Magnetic Circuits 530
    12.3.1 Magnetomotive Force 531
    12.3.2 Reluctance 532
    12.4 Mutual Inductance and Transformers 538
    12.4.1 Mutual Inductance 539
    12.4.2 Transformers 542
    12.5 Different Types of Transformers 547
    12.6 Using PSpice to Simulate Mutual Inductance and Transformers 547
    12.7 What Did You Learn? 552
    Problems 552

    Chapter 13 Electric Machines 557
    13.1 Introduction 557
    13.1.1 Features of Electric Machines 558
    13.1.2 Classification of Motors 558
    13.2 DC Motors 559
    13.2.1 Principle of Operation 559
    13.2.2 Assembly of a Typical DC Motor 559
    13.2.3 Operation of a DC Motor 560
    13.2.4 Losses in DC Machines 561
    13.3 Different Types of DC Motors 563
    13.3.1 Analysis of a DC Motor 563
    13.3.2 Shunt-Connected DC Motor 566
    13.3.3 Separately Excited DC Motors 567
    13.3.4 Permanent Magnet (PM) DC Motor 568
    13.3.5 Series-Connected DC Motor 571
    13.3.6 Summary of DC Motors 573
    13.4 Speed Control Methods 573
    13.4.1 Speed Control by Varying the Field Current 573
    13.4.2 Speed Control by Varying the Armature Current 575
    13.5 DC Generators 576
    13.5.1 The Architecture and Principle of Operation of a DC Generator 576
    13.5.2 emf Equation 577
    13.6 Different Types of DC Generators 578
    13.6.1 Load Regulation Characteristics of DC Generators 578
    13.6.2 Separately Excited DC Generator 579
    13.6.3 Shunt-Connected DC Generator 580
    13.7 AC Motors 580
    13.7.1 Three-Phase Synchronous Motors 581
    13.7.2 Three-Phase Induction Motor 584
    13.7.3 Losses in AC Machines 591
    13.7.4 Power Flow Diagram for an AC Motor 591
    13.8 AC Generators 592
    13.8.1 Construction and Working 593
    13.8.2 Winding Terminologies for the Alternator 593
    13.8.3 The emf Equation of an Alternator 595
    13.9 Special Types of Motors 597
    13.9.1 Single-Phase Induction Motors 597
    13.9.2 Stepper Motors 597
    13.9.3 Brushless DC Motors 599
    13.9.4 Universal Motors 600
    13.10 How Is the Most Suitable Motor Selected? 602
    13.11 Setup of a Simple DC Motor Circuit Using PSpice 603
    13.12 What Did You Learn? 610
    Further Reading 611
    Problems 611

    Chapter 14 Electrical Measurement Instruments 615
    14.1 Introduction 615
    14.2 Measurement Errors 616
    14.3 Basic Measurement Instruments 619
    14.3.1 An Ammeter Built Using a Galvanometer 619
    14.3.2 A Voltmeter Built Using a Galvanometer 620
    14.3.3 An Ohmmeter Built Using a Galvanometer 621
    14.3.4 Multi-Meters 621
    14.4 Time Domain and Frequency Domain 625
    14.4.1 The Time Domain 625
    14.4.2 The Frequency Domain 626
    14.4.3 Time Domain Versus Frequency Domain 627
    14.5 The Oscilloscope 628
    14.6 The Spectrum Analyzer 633
    14.6.1 Adjusting the Spectrum Analyzer’s Display Window 633
    14.7 The Function Generator 639
    14.8 What Did You Learn? 640
    Problems 641

    Chapter 15 Electrical Safety 646
    15.1 Introduction 646
    15.2 Electric Shock 646
    15.2.1 Shock Effects 647
    15.2.2 Shock Prevention 649
    15.3 Electromagnetic Hazards 649
    15.3.1 High-Frequency Hazards 649
    15.3.2 Low-Frequency Hazards 651
    15.3.3 Avoiding Radio Frequency Hazards 655
    15.4 Arcs and Explosions 655
    15.4.1 Arcs 655
    15.4.2 Blasts 657
    15.4.3 Explosion Prevention 657
    15.5 The National Electric Code 658
    15.5.1 Shock Prevention 658
    15.5.2 Fire Prevention 663
    15.6 What Did You Learn? 665
    References 665
    Problems 666
    Appendix A: Solving Linear Equations 671
    Appendix B: Laplace Transform 673
    Appendix C: Complex Numbers 677
    Selected Solutions 683
    Index 687
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