Fluid Mechanics – Frank White – 8th Edition

Description

White’s Fluid Mechanics offers students a clear and comprehensive presentation of the material that demonstrates the progression from physical concepts to engineering applications and helps students quickly see the practical importance of fluid mechanics fundamentals.

The wide variety of topics gives instructors many options for their course and is a useful resource to students long after graduation. The book’s unique problem-solving approach is presented at the start of the book and carefully integrated in all examples. Students can progress from general ones to those involving design, multiple steps and computer usage.

Frank M White is Professor Emeritus of Mechanical and Ocean Engineering at the University of Rhode Island. He studied at Georgia Tech and M.I.T. In 1966 he helpedfound, at URI, the first department of ocean engineering in the country. Known primarily as a teacher and writer, he has received eight teaching awards and has writtenfour textbooks on fluid mechanics and heat transfer. From 1979 to 1990 he was editor-in-chief of the ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering and then served from 1991 to 1997 as chairman of the ASME Board of Editors and of the Publications Committee. He is a Fellow of ASME and in 1991 received the ASME Fluids Engineering Award.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Chapter 1
Introduction 3
1.1 Preliminary Remarks 3
1.2 History and Scope of Fluid Mechanics 4
1.3 Problem-Solving Techniques 6
1.4 The Concept of a Fluid 6
1.5 The Fluid as a Continuum 8
1.6 Dimensions and Units 9
1.7 Properties of the Velocity Field 17
1.8 Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid 18
1.9 Viscosity and Other Secondary Properties 25
1.10 Basic Flow Analysis Techniques 40
1.11 Flow Patterns: Streamlines, Streaklines, and
Pathlines 41
1.12 The Engineering Equation Solver 46
1.13 Uncertainty in Experimental Data 46
1.14 The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE)

Chapter 2
Pressure Distribution in a Fluid 65
2.1 Pressure and Pressure Gradient 65
2.2 Equilibrium of a Fluid Element 67
2.3 Hydrostatic Pressure Distributions 68
2.4 Application to Manometry 75
2.5 Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces 78
2.6 Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces 86
2.7 Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids 89
2.8 Buoyancy and Stability 91
2.9 Pressure Distribution in Rigid-Body Motion 97
2.10 Pressure Measurement 105

Chapter 3
Integral Relations for a Control Volume 139
3.1 Basic Physical Laws of Fluid Mechanics 139
3.2 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 143
3.3 Conservation of Mass 150
3.4 The Linear Momentum Equation 155
3.5 Frictionless Flow: The Bernoulli Equation 169
3.6 The Angular Momentum Theorem 178
3.7 The Energy Equation 184

Chapter 4
Differential Relations for Fluid Flow 229
4.1 The Acceleration Field of a Fluid 230
4.2 The Differential Equation of Mass Conservation 232
4.3 The Differential Equation of Linear Momentum 238
4.4 The Differential Equation of Angular Momentum 244
4.5 The Differential Equation of Energy 246
4.6 Boundary Conditions for the Basic Equations 249
4.7 The Stream Function 253
4.8 Vorticity and Irrotationality 261
4.9 Frictionless Irrotational Flows 263
4.10 Some Illustrative Incompressible Viscous Flows 268

Chapter 5
Dimensional Analysis and Similarity 293
5.1 Introduction 298
5.2 The Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity 296
5.3 The Pi Theorem 302
5.4 Nondimensionalization of the Basic Equations 312
5.5 Modeling and Its Pitfalls 321

Chapter 6
Viscous Flow in Ducts 347
6.1 Reynolds Number Regimes 347
6.2 Internal versus External Viscous Flow 352
6.3 Head Loss—The Friction Factor 355
6.4 Laminar Fully Developed Pipe Flow 357
6.5 Turbulence Modeling 359
6.6 Turbulent Pipe Flow 365
6.7 Four Types of Pipe Flow Problems 373
6.8 Flow in Noncircular Ducts 379
6.9 Minor or Local Losses in Pipe Systems 388
6.10 Multiple-Pipe Systems 397
6.11 Experimental Duct Flows: Diffuser Performance 403
6.12 Fluid Meters 408

Chapter 7
Flow Past Immersed Bodies 457
7.1 Reynolds Number and Geometry Effects 457
7.2 Momentum Integral Estimates 461
7.3 The Boundary Layer Equations 464
7.4 The Flat-Plate Boundary Layer 467
7.5 Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradient 476
7.6 Experimental External Flows 482

Chapter 8
Potential Flow and Computational Fluid Dynamics 529
8.1 Introduction and Review 529
8.2 Elementary Plane Flow Solutions 532
8.3 Superposition of Plane Flow Solutions 539
8.4 Plane Flow Past Closed-Body Shapes 545
8.5 Other Plane Potential Flows 555
8.6 Images 559
8.7 Airfoil Theory 562
8.8 Axisymmetric Potential Flow 574
8.9 Numerical Analysis 579

Chapter 9
Compressible Flow 609
9.1 Introduction: Review of Thermodynamics 609
9.2 The Speed of Sound 614
9.3 Adiabatic and Isentropic Steady Flow 616
9.4 Isentropic Flow with Area Changes 622
9.5 The Normal Shock Wave 629
9.6 Operation of Converging and Diverging Nozzles 637
9.7 Compressible Duct Flow with Friction 642
9.8 Frictionless Duct Flow with Heat Transfer 654
9.9 Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flow 659
9.10 Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves 669

Chapter 10
Open-Channel Flow 701
10.1 Introduction 701
10.2 Uniform Flow: The Chézy Formula 707
10.3 Efficient Uniform-Flow Channels 712
10.4 Specific Energy: Critical Depth 714
10.5 The Hydraulic Jump 722
10.6 Gradually Varied Flow 726
10.7 Flow Measurement and Control by Weirs 734

Chapter 11
Turbomachinery 759
11.1 Introduction and Classification 759
11.2 The Centrifugal Pump 762
11.3 Pump Performance Curves and Similarity Rules 768
11.4 Mixed- and Axial-Flow Pumps: The Specific Speed 778
11.5 Matching Pumps to System Characteristics 785
11.6 Turbines 793

Appendix A Physical Properties of Fluids 824
Appendix B Compressible Flow Tables 829
Appendix C Conversion Factors 836
Appendix D Equations of Motion in Cylindrical Coordinates 838
Answers to Selected Problems 840
Index 847

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