Fundamental of Electric Circuits – Charles Alexander, Matthew Sadiku – 4th Edition

Description

Alexander and Sadiku’s fourth edition of Fundamentals of continues in the spirit of its successful previous editions, with the objective of presenting in a manner that is clearer, more interesting, and easier to understand than other, more traditional texts. Students are introduced to the sound, six-step methodology in chapter one, and are consistently made to apply and practice these steps in practice problems and homework problems throughout the text.

Each chapter opens with a discussion about how to enhance skills which contribute to successful as well as successful careers or a career-oriented talk on a sub-discipline of electrical engineering. This is followed by an introduction that links the chapter with the previous chapters and states the chapter objectives. The chapter ends with a summary of key points and formulas.

A balance of theory, worked examples and extended examples, practice problems, and real-world applications, with over 350 new homework problems for the fourth edition and robust media offerings, renders the fourth edition the most comprehensive and student-friendly approach to linear circuit analysis.

The text already included openended that help students use creativity, which is an important part of learning how to design. We already have some questions that are open desired to add much more into our text in this important area and have developed an approach to do just that.

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  • Preface xii
    Acknowledgments xvi
    Guided Tour xx
    A Note to the Student xxv
    About the Authors xxvii
    PART 1 DC Circuits 2
    Chapter 1 Basic Concepts 3
    1.1 Introduction 4
    1.2 Systems of Units 4
    1.3 Charge and Current 6
    1.4 Voltage 9
    1.5 Power and Energy 10
    1.6 Circuit Elements 15
    1.7 Applications 17
    1.7.1 TV Picture Tube
    1.7.2 Electricity Bills
    1.8 Problem Solving 20
    1.9 Summary 23
    Review Questions 24
    Problems 24
    Comprehensive Problems 27
    Chapter 2 Basic Laws 29
    2.1 Introduction 30
    2.2 Ohm’s Law 30
    2.3 Nodes, Branches, and Loops 35
    2.4 Kirchhoff’s Laws 37
    2.5 Series Resistors and Voltage Division 43
    2.6 Parallel Resistors and Current Division 45
    2.7 Wye-Delta Transformations 52
    2.8 Applications 58
    2.8.1 Lighting Systems
    2.8.2 Design of DC Meters
    2.9 Summary 64
    Review Questions 66
    Problems 67
    Comprehensive Problems 78
    Chapter 3 Methods of Analysis 81
    3.1 Introduction 82
    3.2 Nodal Analysis 82
    3.3 Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources 88
    3.4 Mesh Analysis 93
    3.5 Mesh Analysis with Current Sources 98
    3.6 Nodal and Mesh Analyses by Inspection 100
    3.7 Nodal Versus Mesh Analysis 104
    3.8 Circuit Analysis with PSpice 105
    3.9 Applications: DC Transistor Circuits 107
    3.10 Summary 112
    Review Questions 113
    Problems 114
    Comprehensive Problems 126
    Chapter 4 Circuit Theorems 127
    4.1 Introduction 128
    4.2 Linearity Property 128
    4.3 Superposition 130
    4.4 Source Transformation 135
    4.5 Thevenin’s Theorem 139
    4.6 Norton’s Theorem 145
    4.7 Derivations of Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 149
    4.8 Maximum Power Transfer 150
    4.9 Verifying Circuit Theorems with PSpice 152
    4.10 Applications 155
    4.10.1 Source Modeling
    4.10.2 Resistance Measurement
    4.11 Summary 160
    Review Questions 161
    Problems 162
    Comprehensive Problems 173
    Chapter 5 Operational Amplifi;ers 175
    5.1 Introduction 176
    5.2 Operational Amplifiers 176
    5.3 Ideal Op Amp 179
    5.4 Inverting Amplifier 181
    5.5 Noninverting Amplifier 183
    5.6 Summing Amplifier 185
    5.7 Difference Amplifier 187
    5.8 Cascaded Op Amp Circuits 191
    5.9 Op Amp Circuit Analysis with PSpice
    5.10 Applications 196
    5.10.1 Digital-to-Analog Converter
    5.10.2 Instrumentation Amplifiers
    5.11 Summary 199
    Review Questions 201
    Problems 202
    Comprehensive Problems 213
    Chapter 6 Capacitors and Inductors 215
    6.1 Introduction 216
    6.2 Capacitors 216
    6.3 Series and Parallel Capacitors 220
    6.4 Inductors 226
    6.5 Series and Parallel Inductors 229
    6.6 †Applications 233
    6.6.1 Integrator
    6.6.2 Differentiator
    6.6.3 Analog Computer
    6.7 Summary 240
    Review Questions 241
    Problems 242
    Comprehensive Problems 251
    Chapter 7 First-Order Circuits
    7.1 Introduction 254
    7.2 The Source-Free RC Circuit 254
    7.3 The Source-Free RL Circuit 259
    7.4 Singularity Functions 265
    7.5 Step Response of an RC Circuit 273
    7.6 Step Response of an RL Circuit 276
    7.7 First-Order Op Amp Circuits 280
    7.8 Transient Analysis with PSpice 298
    7.9 Applications 293
    7.9.1 Delay Circuits
    7.9.2 Photoflash Unit
    7.9.3 Relay Circuits
    7.9.4 Automobile Ignition Circuit
    7.10 Summary 299
    Review Questions 300
    Problems 301
    Comprehensive Problems 311
    Chapter 8 Second-Order Circuits 313
    8.1 Introduction 314
    8.2 Finding Initial and Final Values 314
    8.3 The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit 319
    8.4 The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit 326
    8.5 Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit 331
    8.6 Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit 336
    8.7 General Second-Order Circuits 339
    8.8 Second-Order Op Amp Circuits 344
    8.9 PSpice Analysis of RLC Circuits 346
    8.10 Duality 350
    8.11 Applications 353
    8.11.1 Automobile Ignition System
    8.11.2 Smoothing Circuits
    8.12 Summary 356
    Review Questions 357
    Problems 358
    Comprehensive Problems 367
    PART 2 AC Circuits 368
    Chapter 9 Sinusoids and Phasors 369
    9.1 Introduction 370
    9.2 Sinusoids 371
    9.3 Phasors 376
    9.4 Phasor Relationships for Circuit Elements 385
    9.5 Impedance and Admittance 387
    9.6 Kirchhoff’s Laws in the Frequency Domain 389
    9.7 Impedance Combinations 390
    9.8 Applications 396
    9.8.1 Phase-Shifters
    9.8.2 AC Bridges
    9.9 Summary 402
    Review Questions 403
    Problems 403
    Comprehensive Problems 411
    Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis 413
    10.1 Introduction 414
    10.2 Nodal Analysis 414
    10.3 Mesh Analysis 417
    10.4 Superposition Theorem 421
    10.5 Source Transformation 424
    10.6 Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 426
    10.7 Op amp AC Circuits 431
    10.8 AC Analysis Using PSpice 433
    10.9 Applications 437
    10.9.1 Capacitance Multiplier
    10.9.2 Oscillators
    10.10 Summary 441
    Review Questions 441
    Problems 443
    Chapter 11 AC Power Analysis
    11.1 Introduction 458
    11.2 Instantaneous and Average Power 458
    11.3 Maximum Average Power Transfer 464
    11.4 Effective or RMS Value 467
    11.5 Apparent Power and Power Factor 470
    11.6 Complex Power 473
    11.7 Conservation of AC Power 477
    11.8 Power Factor Correction 481
    11.9 Applications 483
    11.9.1 Power Measurement
    11.9.2 Electricity Consumption Cost
    11.10 Summary 488
    Review Questions 490
    Problems 490
    Comprehensive Problems 500
    Chapter 12 Three-Phase Circuits 503
    12.1 Introduction 504
    12.2 Balanced Three-Phase Voltages 505
    12.3 Balanced Wye-Wye Connection 509
    12.4 Balanced Wye-Delta Connection 512
    12.5 Balanced Delta-Delta Connection 514
    12.6 Balanced Delta-Wye Connection 516
    12.7 Power in a Balanced System 519
    12.8 Unbalanced Three-Phase Systems 525
    12.9 PSpice for Three-Phase Circuits 529
    12.10 Applications 534
    12.10.1 Three-Phase Power Measurement
    12.10.2 Residential Wiring
    12.11 Summary 543
    Review Questions 543
    Problems 544
    Comprehensive Problems 553
    Chapter 13 Magnetically Coupled Circuits 555
    13.1 Introduction 556
    13.2 Mutual Inductance 557
    13.3 Energy in a Coupled Circuit 564
    13.4 Linear Transformers 567
    13.5 Ideal Transformers 573
    13.6 Ideal Autotransformers 581
    13.7 Three-Phase Transformers 584
    13.8 PSpice Analysis of Magnetically
    13.9 Coupled Circuits 586 †Applications 591
    13.9.1 Transformer as an Isolation Device
    13.9.2 Transformer as a Matching Device
    13.9.3 Power Distribution
    13.10 Summary 597
    Review Questions 598
    Problems 599
    Comprehensive Problems 611
    Chapter 14 Frequency Response 613
    14.1 Introduction 614
    14.2 Transfer Function 614
    14.3 The Decibel Scale 617
    14.4 Bode Plots 619
    14.5 Series Resonance 629
    14.6 Parallel Resonance 634
    14.7 Passive Filters 637
    14.7.1 Lowpass Filter
    14.7.2 Highpass Filter
    14.7.3 Bandpass Filter
    1 4.7.4 Bandstop Filter
    14.8 Active Filters 642
    14.8.1 First-Order Lowpass Filter
    14.8.2 First-Order Highpass Filter
    14.8.3 Bandpass Filter
    14.8.4 Bandreject (or Notch) Filter
    14.9 Scaling 648
    14.9.1 Magnitude Scaling
    14.9.2 Frequency Scaling
    14.9.3 Magnitude and Frequency Scaling
    14.10 Frequency Response Using PSpice 652
    14.11 Computation Using MATLAB 655
    14.12 Applications 65717.3 Symmetry Considerations 764
    14.12.1 Radio Receiver17.3.1 Even Symmetry
    14.12.2 Touch-Tone Telephone17.3.2 Odd Symmetry
    14.12.3 Crossover Network17.3.3 Half-Wave Symmetry
    14.13 Summary 663
    Review Questions 664
    Problems 665
    Comprehensive Problems 673
    PART 3 Advanced Circuit Analysis 674
    Chapter 15 Introduction to Laplace Transforms 675
    15.1 Introduction 676
    15.2 Definition of the Laplace Transform 677
    15.3 Properties of the Laplace Transform 679
    15.4 The Inverse Laplace Transform 690
    15.4.1 Simple Poles
    15.4.2 Repeated Poles
    15.4.3 Complex Poles
    15.5 The Convolution Integral 697
    15.6 Application to Integrodifferential Equations 705
    Summary 708
    Review Questions 708
    Problems 709
    Chapter 16 Applications of the Laplace Transform 715
    16.1 Introduction 716
    16.2 Circuit Element Models 716
    16.3 Circuit Analysis 722
    16.4 Transfer Functions 726
    16.5 State Variables 730
    16.6 Applications 737
    16.6.1Network Stability
    16.6.2Network Synthesis
    16.7 Summary 745
    Review Questions 746
    Problems 747
    Comprehensive Problems 754
    Chapter 17 The Fourier Series 755
    17.1 Introduction 756
    17.2 Trigonometric Fourier Series 756
    17.4 Circuit Applications 774
    17.5 Average Power and RMS Values 778
    17.6 Exponential Fourier Series 781
    17.7 Fourier Analysis with PSpice 787
    17.7.1 Discrete Fourier Transform
    17.7.2 Fast Fourier Transform
    17.8 Applications 793
    17.8.1 Spectrum Analyzers
    17.8.2 Filters
    17.9 Summary 796
    Review Questions 798
    Problems 798
    Comprehensive Problems 807
    Chapter 18 Fourier Transform 809
    18.1 Introduction 810
    18.2 Definition of the Fourier Transform 810
    18.3 Properties of the Fourier Transform 816
    18.4 Circuit Applications 829
    18.5 Parseval’s Theorem 832
    18.6 Comparing the Fourier and Laplace Transforms 835
    18.7 Applications 836
    18.7.1 Amplitude Modulation
    18.7.2 Sampling
    18.8 Summary 839
    Review Questions 840
    Problems 841
    Comprehensive Problems 847
    Chapter 19 Two-Port Networks 849
    19.1 Introduction 850
    19.2 Impedance Parameters 850
    19.3 Admittance Parameters 855
    19.4 Hybrid Parameters 858
    19.5 Transmission Parameters 863
    19.6 Relationships Between Parameters 868
    19.7 Interconnection of Networks 871
    19.8 Computing Two-Port Parameters Using PSpice 877
    19.9 Applications 880
    19.9.1 Transistor Circuits
    19.9.2 Ladder Network Synthesis
    19.10 Summary 889
    Review Questions 890
    Problems 890
    Comprehensive Problems 901
    Appendix A Simultaneous Equations and Matrix Inversion A-1
    Appendix B Complex Numbers A-9
    Appendix C Mathematical Formulas A-16
    Appendix D PSpice for Windows A-21
    Appendix E MATLAB A-46
    Appendix F KCIDE for Circuits A-65
    Appendix G Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-75
    A Selected Bibliography B-1
    Index I-1
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