Fundamentals of Thermodynamics – Claus Borgnakke, Richard E. Sonntag – 8th Edition

Description

Now in its eighth edition, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics continues to offer a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of classical thermodynamics, while retaining an perspective. With concise, applications-oriented discussion of topics and self-test problems, this text encourages students to monitor their own learning. The eighth edition is updated with additional examples and end-of-chapter problems to increase student comprehension. In addition, Objectives have been added to the beginning of each chapter.

This classic text provides a solid foundation for subsequent studies in fields such as fluid mechanics, and statistical thermodynamics, and prepares students to effectively apply thermodynamics in the practice of engineering.

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  • 1 Introduction and Preliminaries 1

    1.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume 2
    1.2 Macroscopic versus Microscopic Points of View 5
    1.3 Properties and State of a Substance 6
    1.4 Processes and Cycles 6
    1.5 Units for Mass Length Time and Force 8
    1.6 Specific Volume and Density 10
    1.7 Pressure 13
    1.8 Energy 19
    1.9 Equality of Temperature 22
    1.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 22
    1.11 Temperature Scales 23
    1.12 Engineering Applications 24
    Summary 28
    Problems 29

    2 Properties of a Pure Substance 39

    2.1 The Pure Substance 40
    2.2 The Phase Boundaries 40
    2.3 The P–v–T Surface 44
    2.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties 47
    2.5 The Two-Phase States 49
    2.6 The Liquid and Solid States 51
    2.7 The Superheated Vapor States 52
    2.8 The Ideal Gas States 55
    2.9 The Compressibility Factor 59
    2.10 Equations of State 63
    2.11 Computerized Tables 64
    2.12 Engineering Applications 65
    Summary 68
    Problems 69

    3 First Law of Thermodynamics and Energy Equation 81

    3.1 The Energy Equation 81
    3.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics 84
    3.3 The Definition of Work 85
    3.4 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System 90
    3.5 Definition of Heat 98
    3.6 Heat Transfer Modes 99
    3.7 Internal Energy—a Thermodynamic Property 101
    3.8 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique 103
    3.9 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy 109
    3.10 The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats 112
    3.11 The Internal Energy Enthalpy and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases 114
    3.12 General Systems That Involve Work 121
    3.13 Conservation of Mass 123
    3.14 Engineering Applications 125
    Summary 132
    Problems 135

    4 Energy Analysis for a Control Volume 160

    4.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume 160
    4.2 The Energy Equation for a Control Volume 163
    4.3 The Steady-State Process 165
    4.4 Examples of Steady-State Processes 167
    4.5 Multiple Flow Devices 180
    4.6 The Transient Process 182
    4.7 Engineering Applications 189
    Summary 194
    Problems 196

    5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 216

    5.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators 216
    5.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 222
    5.3 The Reversible Process 225
    5.4 Factors That Render Processes Irreversible 226
    5.5 The Carnot Cycle 229
    5.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle 231
    5.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 232
    5.8 The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale 233
    5.9 Ideal versus Real Machines 237
    5.10 Engineering Applications 240
    Summary 243
    Problems 245

    6 Entropy 258

    6.1 The Inequality of Clausius 258
    6.2 Entropy—a Property of a System 262
    6.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance 264
    6.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Processes 266
    6.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation 271
    6.6 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid 272
    6.7 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas 273
    6.8 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas 277
    6.9 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible Process 281
    6.10 Entropy Generation and the Entropy Equation 282
    6.11 Principle of the Increase of Entropy 285
    6.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation 288
    6.13 Some General Comments about Entropy and Chaos 292
    Summary 294
    Problems 296

    7 Second-Law Analysis for a Control Volume 315

    7.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume 315
    7.2 The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process 317
    7.3 The Steady-State Single-Flow Process 326
    7.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy 330
    7.5 Engineering Applications; Efficiency 333
    7.6 Summary of General Control Volume Analysis 339
    Summary 340
    Problems 342

    8 Exergy 362

    8.1 Exergy Reversible Work and Irreversibility 362
    8.2 Exergy and Second-Law Efficiency 374
    8.3 Exergy Balance Equation 382
    8.4 Engineering Applications 387
    Summary 388
    Problems 389

    9 Power and Refrigeration Systems—with Phase Change 403

    9.1 Introduction to Power Systems 404
    9.2 The Rankine Cycle 406
    9.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle 409
    9.4 The Reheat Cycle 414
    9.5 The Regenerative Cycle and Feedwater Heaters 417
    9.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles 424
    9.7 Combined Heat and Power: Other Configurations 430
    9.8 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems 432
    9.9 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 433
    9.10 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems 436
    9.11 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle from the Ideal Cycle 437
    9.12 Refrigeration Cycle Configurations 439
    9.13 The Absorption Refrigeration Cycle 442
    Summary 443
    Problems 444

    10 Power and Refrigeration Systems—Gaseous Working Fluids 462

    10.1 Air-Standard Power Cycles 462
    10.2 The Brayton Cycle 463
    10.3 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator 470
    10.4 Gas-Turbine Power Cycle Configurations 473
    10.5 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion 477
    10.6 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle 480
    10.7 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles 483
    10.8 The Otto Cycle 484
    10.9 The Diesel Cycle 489
    10.10 The Stirling Cycle 492
    10.11 The Atkinson and Miller Cycles 492
    10.12 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems 495
    Summary 497
    Problems 499

    11 Gas Mixtures 513

    11.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases 513
    11.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor 521
    11.3 The Energy Equation Applied to Gas–Vapor Mixtures 526
    11.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process 530
    11.5 Engineering Applications—Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures and the Psychrometric Chart 532
    Summary 539
    Problems 540

    12 Thermodynamic Relations 557

    12.1 The Clapeyron Equation 557
    12.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase 561
    12.3 The Maxwell Relations 563
    12.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy Internal Energy and Entropy 565
    12.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility 571
    12.6 Real-Gas Behavior and Equations of State 573
    12.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant Temperature 578
    12.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant Temperature 581
    12.9 The Property Relation for Mixtures 585
    12.10 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real Gas Mixtures 588
    12.11 Engineering Applications—Thermodynamic Tables 593
    Summary 596
    Problems 598

    13 Chemical Reactions 609

    13.1 Fuels 609
    13.2 The Combustion Process 613
    13.3 Enthalpy of Formation 621
    13.4 Energy Analysis of Reacting Systems 623
    13.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion; Heat of Reaction 630
    13.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature 635
    13.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy 637
    13.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 638
    13.9 Fuel Cells 643
    13.10 Engineering Applications 647
    Summary 652
    Problems 653

    14 Introduction to Phase and Chemical Equilibrium 670

    14.1 Requirements for Equilibrium 670
    14.2 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance 672
    14.3 Metastable Equilibrium 676
    14.4 Chemical Equilibrium 677
    14.5 Simultaneous Reactions 687
    14.6 Coal Gasification 691
    14.7 Ionization 692
    14.8 Engineering Applications 694
    Summary 697
    Problems 698

    15 Compressible Flow 708

    15.1 Stagnation Properties 708
    15.2 The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume 710
    15.3 Forces Acting on a Control Surface 713
    15.4 Adiabatic One-Dimensional Steady-State Flow of an Incompressible Fluid through a Nozzle 715
    15.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas 717
    15.6 Reversible Adiabatic One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through a Nozzle 720
    15.7 Mass Flow Rate of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle 723
    15.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle 728
    15.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients 733
    15.10 Nozzles and Orifices as Flow-Measuring Devices 736
    Summary 740
    Problems 745

    Contents of Appendix 753
    Appendix A SI Units: Single-State Properties 755
    Appendix B SI Units: Thermodynamic Tables 775
    Appendix C Ideal Gas Specific Heat 825
    Appendix D Equations of State 827
    Appendix E Figures 832
    Appendix F English Unit Tables 837
    Answers to Selected Problems 878
    Index 889
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