Integrated Principles of Zoology – Cleveland P. Hickman – 11th Edition

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This text contains the best features of the classic text, while adding eight expert contributors and a wealth of technology offerings. A comprehensive volume featuring a total integration of the text and supporting website. Keywords or phrases throughout the text are highlighted to indicate a hotlink to the website where more information can be found.

This 11th edition offers a wealth of technology products for you and your students and focuses on a contemporary revision. A market survey recommended that we reduce the number of chapters dealing with basic principles. Therefore, Parts 1 and 2 have been and the presentation condensed. Coverage of other topics, including biotechnology and conservation, have been expanded to satisfy market changes. General topics have been decreased in favour of more depth in the diversity chapters.

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  • Table of Contents
    About the Authors viii
    Preface ix

    PART ONE INTRODUCTION TO LIVING ANIMALS

    CHAPTER 1 Life: Biological Principles and the Science of Zoology 2
    Fundamental Properties of Life 3
    Zoology as a Part of Biology 10
    Principles of Science 10
    Theories of Evolution and Heredity 14
    Summary 19

    CHAPTER 2 The Origin and Chemistry of Life 21
    Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems 22
    Chemical Evolution 26
    Origin of Living Systems 30
    Precambrian Life 32
    Summary 34

    CHAPTER 3 Cells as Units of Life 36
    Cell Concept 37
    Organization of Cells 38
    Mitosis and Cell Division 50
    Summary 54

    CHAPTER 4 Cellular Metabolism 56
    Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics 57
    The Role of Enzymes 58
    Chemical Energy Transfer by ATP 60
    Cellular Respiration 61
    Metabolism of Lipids 68
    Metabolism of Proteins 69
    Management of Metabolism 70
    Summary 71

    PART TWO CONTINUITY AND EVOLUTION OF ANIMAL LIFE

    CHAPTER 5 Genetics: A Review 74
    Mendel?s Investigations 75
    Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 75
    Mendelian Laws of Inheritance 79
    Gene Theory 88
    Storage and Transfer of Genetic Information 88
    Sources of Phenotypic Variation 97
    Molecular Genetics of Cancer 98
    Summary 99

    CHAPTER 6 Organic Evolution 102
    Origins of Darwinian Evolutionary Theory 103
    Darwinian Evolutionary Theory: The Evidence 106
    Revisions of Darwin?s Theory 120
    Microevolution: Genetic Variation and Change Within Species 120
    Macroevolution: Major Evolutionary Events 125
    Summary 128

    CHAPTER 7 The Reproductive Process 131
    Nature of the Reproductive Process 132
    The Origin and Maturation of Germ Cells 136
    Reproductive Patterns 140
    Plan of Reproductive Systems 141
    Endocrine Events That Orchestrate Reproduction 143
    Summary 149

    CHAPTER 8 Principles of Development 151
    Early Concepts: Preformation Versus Epigenesis 152
    Fertilization 153
    Cleavage and Early Development 155
    An Overview of Development Following Cleavage 156
    Suites of Developmental Characters 158
    Mechanisms of Development 163
    Gene Expression During Development 164
    Vertebrate Development 168
    Development of Systems and Organs 170
    Summary 174

    PART THREE DIVERSITY OF ANIMAL LIFE

    CHAPTER 9 Architectural Pattern of an Animal 178
    Hierarchical Organization of Animal Complexity 179
    Animal Body Plans 179
    Developmental Patterns Determine Body Plans 182
    Body Plans Among Major Animal Taxa 183
    Components of Metazoan Bodies 183
    Complexity and Body Size 187
    Summary 189

    CHAPTER 10 Classification and Phylogeny of Animals 193
    Linnaeus and Classification 194
    Species 196
    Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 198
    Theories of Taxonomy 200
    Major Divisions of Life 205
    Major Subdivisions of the Animal Kingdom 206
    Summary 207

    CHAPTER 11 Protozoan Groups 210
    How Do We Define Protozoan Groups? 211
    Form and Function 215
    Major Protozoan Taxa 222
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 236
    Summary 237

    CHAPTER 12 Mesozoa and Parazoa 239
    Origin of Metazoa 240
    Phylum Mesozoa 241
    Phylum Placozoa 242
    Phylum Porifera: Sponges 242
    Summary 251

    CHAPTER 13 Radiate Animals 253
    Phylum Cnidaria 254
    Phylum Ctenophora 275
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 278
    Summary 280

    CHAPTER 14 Acoelomate Bilateral Animals 282
    Phylum Platyhelminthes 283
    Phylum Nemertea (Rhynchocoela) 297
    Phylum Gnathostomulida 300
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 301
    Summary 302

    CHAPTER 15 Pseudocoelomate Animals 304
    Pseudocoelomates 305
    Ecdysozoan Phyla 305
    Lophotrochozoan Phyla 315
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 321
    Summary 322

    CHAPTER 16 Molluscs 325
    Molluscs 326
    Form and Function 327
    Classes of Molluscs 330
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 349
    Summary 353

    CHAPTER 17 Segmented Worms 355
    Body Plan 356
    Class Polychaeta 357
    Class Oligochaeta 362
    Class Hirudinea: Leeches 366
    Evolutionary Significance of Metamerism 369
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 370
    Summary 371

    CHAPTER 18 Arthropods 373
    Phylum Arthropoda 374
    Subphylum Trilobita 376
    Subphylum Chelicerata 376
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 382
    Summary 384

    CHAPTER 19 Aquatic Mandibulates 386
    Subphylum Crustacea 387
    A Brief Survey of Crustaceans 395
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 403
    Summary 405

    CHAPTER 20 Terrestrial Mandibulates 407
    Class Chilopoda 408
    Class Diplopoda 408
    Class Pauropoda 409
    Class Symphyla 409
    Class Insecta 410
    Insects and Human Welfare 426
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 433
    Summary 435

    CHAPTER 21 Smaller Protostome Phyla 438
    Lophotrochozoan Phyla 439
    Ecdysozoan Phyla 446
    Phylogeny 450
    Summary 451

    CHAPTER 22 Echinoderms and Hemichordates 454
    Phylum Echinodermata 455
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 470
    Phylum Hemichordata 473
    Phylogeny and Adaptive Radiation 477
    Summary 477

    CHAPTER 23 Chordates 480
    The Chordates 481
    Five Chordate Hallmarks 482
    Ancestry and Evolution 485
    Subphylum Urochordata (Tunicata) 486
    Subphylum Cephalochordata 488
    Subphylum Vertebrata (Craniata) 489
    Summary 496

    CHAPTER 24 Fishes 498
    Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes 499
    Living Jawless Fishes 501
    Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes 505
    Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes 509
    Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes 514
    Summary 525

    CHAPTER 25 Early Tetrapods and Modern Amphibians 527
    Movement onto Land 528
    Early Evolution of Terrestrial Vertebrates 528
    Modern Amphibians 532
    Summary 545

    CHAPTER 26 Amniote Origins and Reptilian Groups 547
    Origin and Adaptive Radiation of Reptilian Groups 548
    Characteristics of Reptiles That Distinguish Them from Amphibians 551
    Characteristics and Natural History of Reptilian Orders 553
    Summary 566

    CHAPTER 27 Birds 568
    Origin and Relationships 569
    Form and Function 573
    Migration and Navigation 584
    Social Behavior and Reproduction 586
    Bird Populations 589
    Summary 592

    CHAPTER 28 Mammals 595
    Origin and Evolution of Mammals 596
    Structural and Functional Adaptations of Mammals 601
    Humans and Mammals 614
    Human Evolution 615
    Summary 618

    PART FOUR ACTIVITY OF LIFE

    CHAPTER 29 Support, Protection, and Movement 626
    Integument Among Various Groups of Animals 627
    Skeletal Systems 630
    Animal Movement 636
    Summary 645

    CHAPTER 30 Homeostasis: Osmotic Regulatin, Excretion, and Temperature Regulation 648
    Water and Osmotic Regulation 649
    Invertebrate Excretory Structures 653
    Vertebrate Kidney 655
    Temperature Regulation 660
    Summary 666

    CHAPTER 31 Internal Fluids and Respiration 668
    Internal Fluid Environment 669
    Composition of Blood 670
    Circulation 673
    Respiration 680
    Summary 688

    CHAPTER 32 Digestion and Nutrition 690
    Feeding Mechanisms 691
    Digestion 694
    Organization and Regional Function of Alimentary Canals 696
    Regulation of Food Intake 702
    Nutritional Requirements 703
    Summary 706

    CHAPTER 33 Nervous Coordination: Nervous System and Sense
    Organs 708
    Neurons: Functional Units of Nervous Systems 709
    Synapses: Junctions Between Nerves 712
    Evolution of Nervous Systems 715
    Sense Organs 722
    Summary 733

    CHAPTER 34 Chemical Coordination: Endocrine System 735
    Mechanisms of Hormone Action 736
    Invertebrate Hormones 738
    Vertebrate Endocrine Glands and Hormones 739
    Summary 750

    CHAPTER 35 Immunity 752
    Susceptibility and Resistance 753
    Innate Defense Mechanisms 753
    Acquired Immune Response in Vertebrates 755
    Blood Group Antigens 761
    Immunity in Invertebrates 762
    Summary 764

    CHAPTER 36 Animal Behavior 766
    Describing Behavior: Principles of Classical Ethology 768
    Control of Behavior 769
    Social Behavior 773
    Summary 783

    PART FIVE ANIMALS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS

    CHAPTER 37 The Biosphere and Animal Distribution 786
    Distribution of Life on Earth 787
    Animal Distribution (Zoogeography) 796
    Summary 803

    CHAPTER 38 Animal Ecology 805
    The Hierarchy of Ecology 806
    Extinction and Biodiversity 818
    Summary 821

    Glossary 823
    Credits 856
    Index 859
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