Solid State and Semiconductor Physics – John P. McKelvey – 1st Edition


The solid state electronics deals with those or built entirely of solid and the electrons, other carriers of the charge, are confined entirely within the solid material.

Table of Contents

1. Space Lattices and Crystal Types
1.1. Concept of Solid
1.2. Unit Cells and Bravait Lattices
1.3. Some Simple Crystal Structures
1.4. Crystal Planes and Miller Indices
1.5. Spacing of Planes in Crystal Lattices
1.6. General Classification of Crystal Types

2. X-Ray Crystal Analysis
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Physics of X-Ray Diffraction
2.3. The Atomic Scattering Factor
2.4. The Geometrical Scattering Factor
2.5. The Reciprocal Lattice
2.6. The Bragg Condition in Terms of the Reciprocal Lattice

3. Dynamics of Crystal Lattices
3.1. Elastic Vibrations of Continuous Media
3.2. Group Velocity of Harmonic Wave Trains
3.3. Wave Motion on a One-Dimensional Atomic Lattice
3.4. The One-Dimensional Diatomic Lattice
3.5. The Forbidden Frequency Region
3.6. Optical Excitation of Lattice Vibrations in Ionic Crystals
3.7. Binding Energy of Ionic Crystal Lattices

4. Outline of Quantum Mechanics
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Black Body Radiation
4.3. The Photoelectric Effect
4.4. Specific Heat of Solids
4.5. The Bohr Atom
4.6. De Broglie's Hypothesis and the Wavelike Properties of Matter
4.7. Wave Mechanics
4.8. The Time Dependence of the Wave Function
4.9. The Free Particle and the Uncertainty Principle
4.10. A Particle in an Infinitely Deep One-Dimensional Potential Well
4.11. A Particle in a One-Dimensional Well of Finite Depth
4.12. The One-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator
4.13. Orthogonality of Eigenfunctions and Superposition of States
4.14. Expectation Values and Quantum Numbers
4.15. The Hydrogen Atom
4.16. Electron Spin, the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Periodic System

5. Outline of Statistical Mechanics
5.1. Introduction
5.2. The Distribution Function and Density of Sates
5.3. The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
5.4. Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics of an Ideal Gas
5.5. Fermi-Dirac Statistics
5.6. The Bose-Einstein Distribution

6. Lattice Vibrations and the Thermal Properties of Crystals
6.1. Classical Calculation of Lattice Specific Heat
6.2. The Einstein Theory of Specific Heat
6.3. The Debye Theory of Specific Heat
6.4. The Phonon
6.5. Thermal Expansion of Solids
6.6. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Solids

7. The Free Electron Theory of Metals
7.1. Introduction
7.2. The Boltzmann Equation and the Mean Free Path
7.3. Electrical Conductivity of a Free-Electron Gas
7.4. Thermal Conductivity and Thermoelectric Effects in Free Electron Systems
7.5. Scattering Process
7.6. The Hall Effect and Other Galvanomagnetic Effects
7.7. The Thermal Capacity of Free-Electron Systems

8. Quantum Theory of Electrons in Periodic Lattices
8.1. Introduction
8.2. The Bloch Theorem
8.3. The Kronnig-Penney Model of an Infinite One-Dimensional Crystal
8.4. Crystal Momentum and Effective Mass
8.5. Reduced Zone Representation, Electrons and Holes
8.6. The Free Electron Approximation
8.7. The Tight Binding Approximation
8.8. Dynamics of Electrons in Two- and Three-Dimensional Lattices, Constant Energy Surfaces and Brillouin Zones
8.9. Insulators, Semiconductors and Metals
8.10. The Density of States Function and Phase Changes in Binary Alloys

9. Uniform Electronic Semiconductors in Equilibrium
9.1. Semiconductors
9.2. Intrinsic Semiconductors and Impurity Semiconductors
9.3. Statistics of Holes and Electrons -The Case of the Intrinsic Semiconductor
9.4. Ionization Energy of Impurity Centers
9.5. Statistics of Impurity Semiconductors
9.6. Case of Incomplete Ionization of Impurity Levels (Very Low Temperature)
9.7. Conductivity
9.8. The Hall Effect and Magnetoresistance
9.9. Cyclotron Resonance and Ellipsoidal Energy Surfaces
9.10. Density of States, Conductivity and Hall Effect with Complex Energy Surfaces
9.11. Scattering Mechanisms and Mobility of Charge Carriers

10. Excess Carriers in Semiconductors
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Transport Behaviour of Excess Carriers, The Continuity Equations
10.3. Some Useful Particular Solutions of the Continuity Equation
10.4. Drift Mobility and the Haynes-Shockley Experiment
10.5. Surface Recombination and the Surface Boundary Condition
10.6. Steady State Photoconductivity
10.7. Transient Photoconductivity, Excess Carrier Lifetime
10.8. Recombination Mechanisms, The Shockley-Read Theory of Recombination

11. Materials Technology and the Measurement of Bulk Properties
11.1. Preparation of High-Purity Semiconductor Materials
11.2. The Growth of Single Crystal Samples
11.3. Measurement of Bulk Resistivity
11.4. Measurement of Impurity Content and Mobility by the Hall Effect
11.5. Measurement of Excess Carrier Lifetime
11.6. Dislocations and othe Imperfections

12. Theory of Semiconductor pn-Junctions
12.1. The pn-Junction
12.2. The Equilibrium Internal Contact Potential
12.3. Potentials and Fields in the Neighborhood of a pn-Junction
12.4. Simplified Mathematical Model of the Abrupt pn-Junction
12.5. Junction Capacitance, Determination of Interval Potential

13. pn-Junction Rectifiers and Transistors
13.1. Theory of the pn-Junction Rectifier
13.2. Currents and Fields in pn-Junction Rectifiers
13.3. Junction Rectifiers of Finite Size, the Effect of Surfaces and Ohmic end Contacts
13.4. Physical Mechanisms of Breakdown in pn-Junctions
13.5. pn-Junction Fabrication Technology
13.6. pnp and npn Junction Transistors

14. pn-Junctions at High Current Levels, the pin Rectifier
14.1. pn-Junctions at High Current Densities
14.2. The Analysis of the p+in+ Rectifier at High Current Levels
14.3. Forward Voltage Drop in pin Rectifiers as a Function of Temperature

15. Other Semiconductor Devices
15.1. The pn Photovoltaic Effect and the pn-Junction Photovoltaic Cells
15.2. Other Photodevices, Phototransistors, Particle Detectors and Infrared Detectors
15.3. pnpn Controlled Rectifiers
15.4. Tunnel Diodes
15.5. Unipolar or Field Effect Transistors

16. Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Semiconductor Surfaces
16.1. Metal-Semiconductor Contacts in Equilibrium
16.2. Metal-Semiconductor Contact Rectification
16.3. Surface States and the Independence of Rectifying Properties of Work Functions
16.4. Potential, Charge and Field within a Semiconductor Surface Layer
16.5. Surface Conductivity, Field Effect and Surface Mobility, Properties of Actual Semiconductor Surfaces

Appendix A. The Dirac Delta Function
Appendix B. Tensor Analysis
Index of Names
Index of Subjects
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