Supersymmetry And String Theory. Beyond The Standard Model – Michael Dine – 1st Edition

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The past decade has witnessed dramatic developments in the field of theoretical physics. This is a comprehensive introduction to these recent developments. It contains a review of the Standard Model, which covers non-disruptive topics, and a discussion of great unified theories and magnetic monopoles.

Introduce the basics of supersymmetry and its phenomenology, and includes dynamics, breakdown of dynamic supersymmetry, and duality. The then covers general relativity and big bang theory, and the basic of inflationary cosmologies before discussing the spectra of known string theories and the characteristics of their interactions.

The also includes brief introductions to the Technicolor, additional large dimensions, and the Randall-Sundrum theory of warped spaces. This will be of great interest to graduates and researchers in the of particle theory, string theory, and cosmology.

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  • Preface page xv
    A note on choice of metric xviii
    Text website xx
    Part 1 Effective field theory: the Standard Model,
    supersymmetry, unification 1
    1 Before the Standard Model 3
    Suggested reading 7
    2 The Standard Model 9
    2.1 Yang-Mills theory 9
    2.2 Realizations of symmetry in quantum field theory 12
    2.3 The quantization of Yang-Mills theories 18
    2.4 The particles and fields of the Standard Model 22
    2.5 The gauge boson masses 25
    2.6 Quark and lepton masses 27
    Suggested reading 28
    Exercises 28
    3 Phenomenology of the Standard Model 29
    3.1 The weak interactions 29
    3.2 The quark and lepton mass matrices 32
    3.3 The strong interactions 34
    3.4 The renormalization group 35
    3.5 Calculating the beta function 39
    3.6 The strong interactions and dimensional
    transmutation 43
    3.7 Confinement and lattice gauge theory 44
    3.8 Strong interaction processes at high momentum transfer 51
    Suggested reading 59
    Exercises 61
    4 The Standard Model as an effective field theory 63
    4.1 Lepton and baryon number violation 66
    4.2 Challenges for the Standard Model 70
    4.3 The hierarchy problem 71
    4.4 Dark matter and dark energy 72
    4.5 Summary: successes and limitations of the
    Standard Model 73
    Suggested reading 73
    5 Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem 75
    5.1 The chiral anomaly 76
    5.2 A two-dimensional detour 81
    5.3 Real QCD 89
    5.4 The strong CP problem 100
    5.5 Possible solutions of the strong CP problem 102
    Suggested reading 105
    Exercises 106
    6 Grand unification 107
    6.1 Cancellation of anomalies 110
    6.2 Renormalization of couplings 110
    6.3 Breaking to SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1) 111
    6.4 SU(2) × U(1) breaking 112
    6.5 Charge quantization and magnetic monopoles 113
    6.6 Proton decay 114
    6.7 Other groups 114
    Suggested reading 117
    Exercises 117
    7 Magnetic monopoles and solitons 119
    7.1 Solitons in 1 + 1 dimensions 120
    7.2 Solitons in 2 + 1 dimensions: strings or vortices 122
    7.3 Magnetic monopoles 122
    7.4 The BPS limit 124
    7.5 Collective coordinates for the monopole solution 125
    7.6 The Witten effect: the electric charge in the
    presence of ? 127
    7.7 Electric-magnetic duality 128
    Suggested reading 129
    Exercises 129
    8 Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies 131
    8.1 QCD in a world without Higgs fields 132
    8.2 Fermion masses: extended technicolor 133
    8.3 Precision electroweak measurements 135
    Suggested reading 136
    Exercises 136
    Part 2 Supersymmetry 137
    9 Supersymmetry 139
    9.1 The supersymmetry algebra and its representations 140
    9.2 Superspace 140
    9.3 N = 1 Lagrangians 144
    9.4 The supersymmetry currents 147
    9.5 The ground-state energy in globally supersymmetric
    theories 148
    9.6 Some simple models 149
    9.7 Non-renormalization theorems 151
    9.8 Local supersymmetry: supergravity 154
    Suggested reading 155
    Exercises 155
    10 A first look at supersymmetry breaking 157
    10.1 Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking 157
    10.2 The goldstino theorem 160
    10.3 Loop corrections and the vacuum degeneracy 161
    10.4 Explicit, soft supersymmetry breaking 162
    10.5 Supersymmetry breaking in supergravity models 163
    Suggested reading 166
    Exercises 166
    11 The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model 167
    11.1 Soft supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM 169
    11.2 SU(2) × U(1) breaking 173
    11.3 Why is one Higgs mass negative? 175
    11.4 Radiative corrections to the Higgs mass limit 176
    11.5 Embedding the MSSM in supergravity 177
    11.6 The µ term 178
    11.7 Constraints on soft breakings 179
    Suggested reading 183
    Exercises 183
    12 Supersymmetric grand unification 185
    12.1 A supersymmetric grand unified model 185
    12.2 Coupling constant unification 186
    12.3 Dimension-five operators and proton decay 188
    Suggested reading 189
    Exercises 189
    13 Supersymmetric dynamics 191
    13.1 Criteria for supersymmetry breaking: the Witten index 192
    13.2 Gaugino condensation in pure gauge theories 193
    13.3 Supersymmetric QCD 194
    13.4 Nf < N: a non-perturbative superpotential 197
    13.5 The superpotential in the case Nf < N ? 1 200
    13.6 Nf = N ? 1: the instanton-generated superpotential 201
    Suggested reading 208
    Exercises 208
    14 Dynamical supersymmetry breaking 209
    14.1 Models of dynamical supersymmetry breaking 209
    14.2 Particle physics and dynamical supersymmetry breaking 211
    Suggested reading 218
    Exercises 218
    15 Theories with more than four conserved supercharges 219
    15.1 N = 2 theories: exact moduli spaces 219
    15.2 A still simpler theory: N = 4 Yang-Mills 221
    15.3 A deeper understanding of the BPS condition 223
    15.4 Seiberg-Witten theory 225
    Suggested reading 230
    Exercises 231
    16 More supersymmetric dynamics 233
    16.1 Conformally invariant field theories 233
    16.2 More supersymmetric QCD 235
    16.3 Nf = Nc 236
    16.4 Nf > N + 1 240
    16.5 Nf ? 3/2N 241
    Suggested reading 241
    Exercises 242
    17 An introduction to general relativity 243
    17.1 Tensors in general relativity 244
    17.2 Curvature 249
    17.3 The gravitational action 250
    17.4 The Schwarzschild solution 252
    17.5 Features of the Schwarzschild metric 254
    17.6 Coupling spinors to gravity 256
    Suggested reading 257
    Exercises 257
    18 Cosmology 259
    18.1 A history of the universe 263
    Suggested reading 268
    Exercises 268
    19 Astroparticle physics and inflation 269
    19.1 Inflation 272
    19.2 The axion as dark matter 280
    19.3 The LSP as the dark matter 283
    19.4 The moduli problem 285
    19.5 Baryogenesis 287
    19.6 Flat directions and baryogenesis 294
    19.7 Supersymmetry breaking in the early universe 296
    19.8 The fate of the condensate 297
    19.9 Dark energy 300
    Suggested reading 301
    Exercises 301
    Part 3 String theory 303
    20 Introduction 305
    20.1 The peculiar history of string theory 306
    Suggested reading 311
    21 The bosonic string 313
    21.1 The light cone gauge in string theory 315
    21.2 Closed strings 318
    21.3 String interactions 320
    21.4 Conformal invariance 322
    21.5 Vertex operators and the S-matrix 328
    21.6 The S-matrix vs. the effective action 334
    21.7 Loop amplitudes 335
    Suggested reading 338
    Exercises 338
    22 The superstring 341
    22.1 Open superstrings 341
    22.2 Quantization in the Ramond sector: the appearance of
    space-time fermions 343
    22.3 Type II theory 344
    22.4 World sheet supersymmetry 345
    22.5 The spectra of the superstrings 346
    22.6 Manifest space-time supersymmetry: the
    Green-Schwarz formalism 353
    22.7 Vertex operators 355
    Suggested reading 356
    Exercises 356
    23 The heterotic string 359
    23.1 The O(32) theory 360
    23.2 The E8 × E8 theory 361
    23.3 Heterotic string interactions 361
    23.4 A non-supersymmetric heterotic string theory 363
    Suggested reading 363
    Exercises 364
    24 Effective actions in ten dimensions 365
    24.1 Coupling constants in string theory 368
    Suggested reading 371
    Exercise 371
    25 Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds 373
    25.1 Compactification in field theory: the Kaluza-Klein program 373
    25.2 Closed strings on tori 377
    25.3 Enhanced symmetries 380
    25.4 Strings in background fields 382
    25.5 Bosonic formulation of the heterotic string 386
    25.6 Orbifolds 387
    25.7 Effective actions in four dimensions for orbifold models 395
    25.8 Non-supersymmetric compactifications 398
    Suggested reading 399
    Exercises 400
    26 Compactification of string theory II. Calabi-Yau compactifications 401
    26.1 Mathematical preliminaries 401
    26.2 Calabi-Yau spaces: constructions 406
    26.3 The spectrum of Calabi-Yau compactifications 409
    26.4 World sheet description of Calabi-Yau compactification 411
    26.5 An example: the quintic in CP4 414
    26.6 Calabi-Yau compactification of the heterotic
    string at weak coupling 416
    Suggested reading 426
    Exercises 427
    27 Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling 429
    27.1 Non-renormalization theorems 430
    27.2 Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms 434
    27.3 Gaugino condensation 438
    27.4 Obstacles to a weakly coupled string phenomenology 439
    Suggested reading 440
    28 Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory 441
    28.1 Perturbative dualities 442
    28.2 Strings at strong coupling: duality 442
    28.3 D-branes 443
    28.4 Branes from T-duality of Type I strings 447
    28.5 Strong-weak coupling dualities: the equivalence of
    different string theories 451
    28.6 Strong-weak coupling dualities: some evidence 452
    28.7 Strongly coupled heterotic string 458
    28.8 Non-perturbative formulations of string theory 460
    Suggested reading 465
    Exercises 466
    29 Large and warped extra dimensions 467
    29.1 Large extra dimensions: the ADD proposal 467
    29.2 Warped spaces: the Randall-Sundrum proposal 470
    Suggested reading 473
    Exercise 473
    30 Coda: where are we headed? 475
    Suggested reading 479
    Part 4 The appendices 481
    Appendix A Two-component spinors 483
    Appendix B Goldstone’s theorem and the pi mesons 487
    Exercises 489
    Appendix C Some practice with the path integral in field theory 491
    C.1 Path integral review 491
    C.2 Finite-temperature field theory 492
    C.3 QCD at high temperature 495
    C.4 Weak interactions at high temperature 496
    C.5 Electroweak baryon number violation 497
    Suggested reading 499
    Exercises 499
    Appendix D The beta function in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory 501
    Exercise 503
    References 505
    Index 511
  • Citation
    • Full Title: Supersymmetry And String Theory. Beyond The Standard Model
    • Author/s:
    • ISBN-10: 0521858410
    • ISBN-13: 9780521858410
    • Edition: 1st Edition
    • Publication date: 2007
    • Topic: Physics
    • Subtopic: Modern Physics
    • File Type: eBook
    • Idioma: English

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