Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems – Thierry V. Cutsem, Costas Vournas – 1st Edition

Description

The voltage stability of electric presents a clear description of voltage instability and collapse phenomena. It proposes a uniform and coherent theoretical framework for analysis and covers the most modern methods. The book describes practical that can be used for voltage safety assessment and offers a variety of examples. This is a first attempt to condense technical documents and reports on this topic into a unique; coherent and theoretically sound presentation.

The transmission; generation and load aspects of the voltage instability problem are dealt with in detail; and an integral energy system is developed and explained for use in voltage stability analysis. The notions and concepts of the theory of nonlinear systems are presented in a tutorial way for the use of those new in the field. The analyzes of load capacity; sensitivity and bifurcation of voltage stability are introduced and discussed in depth.

Voltage instability are classified and examined thoroughly; along with countermeasures that can be used to avoid them. In addition; voltage safety criteria and are reviewed; analyzed and illustrated through realistic results.
Voltage stability is a relatively recent and challenging problem in engineering. It is gaining importance as the tendency to operate energy systems closer to its continues to increase.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE

Part I COMPONENTS AND PHENOMENA

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Why another Book?
1.2 Voltage Stability
1.3 Power System Stability Classification
1.4 Structure of this Book
1.5 Notation

2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ASPECTS
2.1 Single-Load Infinite-Bus System
2.2 Maximum Deliverable Power
2.3 Power-Voltage Relationships
2.4 Generator Reactive Power Requirement
2.5 A First Glance at Instability Mechanisms
2.6 Effect of Compensation
2.7 VQ Curves
2.8 Effect of Adjustable Transformer Ratios
2.9 Problems

3 GENERATION ASPECTS
3.1 A review of synchronous machine theory
3.2 Frequency and voltage controllers
3.3 Limiting devices affecting voltage stability
3.4 Voltage-reactive power characteristics of synchronous generators
3.5 Capability curves
3.6 Effect of machine limitations on deliverable power
3.7 Problems

4 LOAD ASPECTS
4.1 Voltage Dependence of Loads
4.2 Load Restoration Dynamics
4.3 Induction Motors
4.4 Load Tap Changers
4.5 Thermostatic Load Recovery
4.6 Generic Aggregate Load Models
4.7 HVDCLinks
4.8 Problems

Part II INSTABILITY MECHANISMS AND ANALYSIS METHODS

5 MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND
5.1 Differential Equations (qualitative theory)
5.2 Bifurcations
5.3 Differential-Algebraic Systems
5.4 Multiple time scales

6 MODELLING: SYSTEM PERSPECTIVE
6.1 Outline of a general dynamic model
6.2 Network modelling
6.3 A detailed example
6.4 Time-scale decomposition perspective
6.5 Equilibrium equations for voltage stability studies
6.6 Detailed example (continued): equilibrium formulation
6.7 Number-Crunching Problem

7 LOADABILITY, SENSITIVITY AND BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
7.1 Loadability Limits
7.2 Sensitivity Analysis
7.3 Bifurcation Analysis
7.4 Eigenvector and Singular Vector Properties
7.5 Loadability or Bifurcation Surface
7.6 Loadability Limits in the Presence of Discontinuities
7.7 Problems

8 INSTABILITY MECHANISMS AND COUNTERMEASURES
8.1 Types of Countermeasures
8.2 Classification of Instability Mechanisms
8.3 Examples of Short-term Voltage Instability
8.4 Countermeasures to Short-term Instability
8.5 Case Studies of Long-term Voltage Instability
8.6 Corrective Actions against Long-term Instability
8.7 Problems

9 CRITERIA AND METHODS FOR VOLTAGE SECURITY ASSESSMENT
9.1 Voltage Security: Definitions and Criteria
9.2 Contingency Evaluation
9.3 Loadability Limit Computation
9.4 Secure Operation Limit Determination
9.5 Eigenanalysis for Instability Diagnosis
9.6 Examples from a Real-life System
9.7 Real-time Issues

REFERENCES
INDEX


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